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CD-0068 (19)
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Department
Child Development
Course
CD-0068
Professor
Tama Leventhal
Semester
Fall

Description
Free Time 04/15/2014 Eating Disorders and Body Image Adolescents with eating disorders haveextremely  distorted body images ▯ BUT: dissatisfaction with body  image is extremely common Eating disorders range from mild to severe Severe (clinical) disorders relatively rare More common among females than males Often co­occur with other psychological problems Types Anorexia Very rare – less than 1% of the population Characterized by Refusal to maintain body weight Fear of weight gain Denial of weight loss Amenorrhea (lack of 3 consecutive menstrual cycles) Often co­occurs with binge behaviors, use of laxatives, and exercise Medical problems Bradycardia (low heart rate) Hypotension (low blood pressure) Lanugo (covering with hair) Bulimia  About 3% of the population More culturally determined than anorexia Characterized by Recurrent binge/purge behavior >2 bings per week 3 months or longer Medical problems Dental erosion Esophageal tears Cardiac arrhythmia  Obesity >20% over maximum recommend weight for their height  Affects 18% of adolescents (on the rise) and another 15% of adolescence are at risk  Risk factors Genetics/biology 80% of obese adolescents have at least one obese parent Metabolic rate decreases with onset of puberty Environment/behavior SES, sleep deprivation, spending more time eating/eating when bored  Consequences Adult obesity Medical problems (high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, etc.) Adolescents’ Free Time Adolescents spend much more time out of school vs. in school Outside of school activities: Work Homework Participate in sports and clubs Spend time with friends and family Increased focus on organizing adolescents’ “spare time”  Studying Free Time Experience Sampling Method (aka Beeper studies) Report how they’re doing and feeling at multiple points in the day  Several different “typical” patterns found Time use changes with age, BUT continuity within individuals (e.g. those who are active stay active) Regardless of background, “busier” adolescents better adjusted How Do Adolescents Spend Their Time? Suburban, middle­class European American youth 28.8% productive work 23.6% maintenance (getting ready, etc.) 45.8% leisure activities  Urban, poor African American 21.6% productive work 24.6% maintenance 53.85% leisure activities  American youth spending time in comparable ways regardless of their outcomes  Adolescents’ Free Time across World Americans (compared to Europeans and East Asians) Least amount of time on schoolwork  Spend least amount of time in school  Do less well on standardized test than teens in other countries Most time working  th Adolescent Work in 20  Century 1890­1920: age of adolescence 1930s: trend toward staying school begins 1950s­70s: combining school with part time jobs 1980s: 2/3rds of high school seniors worked 2000s: 80­90% of high school seniors worked  Adolescents’ Employment across the World Non­Industrialized Countries work and family life not as distinct (vs. US) Integrated into world of work before adolescence Generally leave school at ages 15­16 Other industrialized countries Smaller portion of teens work in part­time jobs vs. US Europe: employed apprenticeships (especially Germany) Factors Accounting for Differences in US Adolescent Work vs. Other Industrialized Countries Part­time employment not as readily available (e.g. more fast food restaurants in US) Daily routine not amenable to adolescent work  Stigma associated with employment of children Schools require more out­of school time on homework Presence of apprenticeships  Hypotheses about Adolescent Work In favor of teen employment Character­building Keeps idle hands busy Some financial independence Teaches skills not learned in school Breaks down barriers between adolescents and 
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