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Tange Kenzo 4-4

9 Pages

History of Art
Course Code
Ikumi Kaminishi

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• Tea Ceremony: ⿞kaiseki (course meals with sake) ⿞chaji ("tea thing") • 1912: Emperor Meiji dies; Enthronment of Emperor Yoshihito (the little boy from the print) • 1912-26: Taisho era ⿞Yoshihito's reign name: Taisho • 1923: The Great Kanto Earthquake ⿞Great damage due to the earthquake and subsequent fires • 1926: Enthronment of Emperor Hirohito (1901-1989); Showa era (until 1989) • 1941-45: World War II ⿞Japan's imperialistic period: Korea, eastern part of China, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, Guam... ‣ Japan "empire": the largest expansion ⿞Japan surrendered to the Allies • 1952: The Treaty of Peace with Japan (San Francisco); end of Occupation (1945-52: Japan's difficult but exciting time; entirely new government formed) • SCAP MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito photograph: Hirohito visiting MacArthur; a noticeable gap between the two; certainly not on friendly terms • Watanabe & Matsumoto Arch. Firm, Dai-ichi Life Insurance Building, 1938: ⿞1945-52:Used as the headquarter of the SCAP (Supreme Commander of Allied Powers) ⿞Right next to the imperial palace and taller than the palace: as if surveying the palace Postwar: (Re)building Democratic Japan • "Rebuilding" but also "building", since an entirely different nation-state than the one from before • 1945: the Allied Powers did not remove the emperor ⿞Ruth Benedict's Chrysanthemum and the Sword (from her PhD dissertation in Anthropology from Columbia): argued that if the emperor is removed, there would be a massive suicide on the nation's part ⿞So the empror was left, but stripped of political power; just served as a symbol of the nation • 1960: The Treaty of the US-Japan Cooperation and Security ("Ampo") ⿞Divided between two opinions: laborers hated it and it led to anti-Ampo demonstrations ‣ June 18, 1960: Anti-ampo demonstration (330,000 people) ‣ June 22, 1960: "General Labor Strike" (6 million people) ⿞Such public demonstrations would have never happened under the imperial government; thus a sign of democracy and people's freedom to voice • Also the 1960s: growth period in terms of economy and popular culture • 1964: Tokyo Summer Olympics ⿞Chosen about 8 years before, in the 1950s ⿞The first Olympics in the entire Asia: such a pride carrying it out • 1968: Japanese gross national product, second in the world after USA ⿞Postwar growth accelerated ⿞Symbol of advancement: bullet trains, Tokyo Tower, Monorail (from the Haneda Airport to downtown Tokyo; for the Olympics) Tange Kenzo (1913-2005) • The one who built the face of "international" Japan • 1935-38: Tokyo University (major: architecture) • 1959: PhD "Spatial Structure in a Large City" • 1949-56: Hiroshima Reconstructioj project • 1952-55: Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum • 1961-63: Tokyo Olympic Stadiums • 1970: Kuwait Embassy, Tokyo • 1977: Sogetsu Hall, Sogetsu School of Flower Arrangement • 1988-91: New Tokyo Metropolitan Government Headquarters • 1987: Pritzker Architecture Prize • Tange was inspired by Le Corbusier (act. 1930s-1950s) • 1950s: International Style; "modern architecture" ⿞Simplified line, no more ornaments, exposed steel, concrete, modular: not specific to one culture, location, or history • Ex. Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France, 1929-31 • Another one by Le Corbusier: Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950-55 ⿞Curvilinear, different sizes of window ⿞Not really International Style but Corbusier's • Tange's students: Isozaki Arata, Kurokawa Kisho, Maki Fumihiko Tange: During the WWII • 1942: the winner of the construction of the Greater East Asia Memorial Park ⿞An architectural design competition (by Architectural Institute of Japan) ⿞To memorialize those who had died in the exapanding areas of the Japan empire ⿞Trapezoid shaped building ⿞Never actualized • Theory: different models of the forms that signify "sacredness"; really concerned with what makes the building sacred ⿞Western model: Ascension (pyramid, cathedrals...); going up ⿞Japanese model: Markers (signifier: rope, haniwa figurines) ‣ Himorogi; one single rope, shimenawa, can created a sacred site ‣ Haniwa: terra-cotta; used as markers of the sacred tomb of ancient king/ queen; markers for the imperial family • Ex. Daisen Kofub (imperial tomb), Osaka, Yayoi period (ca. 5th century): creating a kekkai with the haniwa figurines/houses ⿞Also Mt. Fuji and the Imperial Palace connected, symbolically • Distinguished between ⿞Jomon period: oldest, like pre-historic ‣ Nomads: only farming and hunting ⿞Yayoi period: settlers, higher class ‣ So for the imperial family; treated as the origin of the imperial power ‣ Also, horizontal, as opposed to the ascension model • What Tange called "fetishizes ion of the earth-bound" ‣ Tange appealing to the committee of
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