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Lecture 6

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Peniel Joseph

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Lecture 6 Double V: Black Freedom Struggle and World War II • Victory of Fascism Internationally/Racism and Jim Crow Domestically o US is saying that they are the global beacon of liberty o However, blacks use Jim Crow laws to destroy this image o Provides a context to the way we live today • Anti­Colonialism and International Crisis rd o Main reason for the war is because 3 ­world people are being subjugated • Black Americans Respond to Invasion of Ethiopia • Spanish Civil War: Abraham Lincoln Brigade • Fought on the side of Democracy against Fascists • The idea of a master race: served as a way for US to rethink race relations • WWII sets up African decolonization March on Washington Movement • Asa Philip Randolph o One of the founders of the movement o Economic as much as social  People wanted education, but wanted to have same opportunities o One of the best known civil rights activists o US is on the verge of a major revolution • Threatened to march 100,000 blacks in the nation’s capital if armed forced were not  desegregated • Executive Order 8802m 1941, banned discrimination in defense industries • Fair employment practices committee • Symbolic victories Jim Crow in the US Military and Defense Industries • Racism’s Economic Impact • Wartime Spending, During the Prewar Mobilization and After, Ends Great Depression • Competition for Jobs • Blacks relegated to segregated military units • Some branches, Marine Corp and Army Air Corp, banned African Americans • Navy directed them toward menial service • Dorie Miller, Pearl Harbor hero but no promotion Psychology of Racism • German and Italian POW’s accorded more freedom in some instances than black soldiers • Most of the almost 1 million blacks served in auxiliary units: engineering, supply, and  transportation corps o Couldn’t fight, still in battle areas, extremely susceptible to death • Unequal military justice • Port Chicago Mutiny in San Francisco, July 17, 1944 after hundreds of black ammunition  loaders killed, survivors refused to board another ship citing unsafe conditions and were  charged with mutiny Black Women in the War • Colored Graduate Nurses • Barred from serving as volunteers despite nursing shortage • Led by Mabel K. Staupers/supported by Eleanor Roosevelt • William Hastie, a civilian aide to Secretary of War Henry Stimson, resigned in 1943 to  protest institutional racism in the Army Air Force • Segregation in officers’ clubs; segregated training barracks for Negro pilots in Tuskegee The Negro Soldier • Joe Louis used to promote idea of racial equality despite evidence to the contrary • Manpower shortages forced acceptance of blacks into Navy and Marines • Combat troop effectiveness questioned by white commanders • Tuskegee Airm
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