FOCUS ON EUROPE
800 Charlemagne couronné empereur– ended anarchy
The pope uses religion to establish Asabiyyah and his position of power.
On what does Charlemagne ground his power?
Centralizing monarchs, church and the nobility (3 sided power struggle– there was no one
King is dependent on the nobility for their military. Nobility has there own revenues and
their own forces.
King is also under the religion because does not have that Asabiyyah
Multiplicity of actors
Extraterritoriality (multiple religion and political realms ex: realm of God)
Limited ability of Kings to wage wars (financial limits, difficult to get nobility to
Expansion of international trade (easier to tax commerce because most of trade happened
at 2 or 3 big ports rather than at every street intersection)
New technologies (gun powder, artillery)– increasing number of wars in Europe
New revenues so could build own military_/
States are the primary actors in IR
Extraterritoriality gives way to national sovereignty
Intensification of international conflict (security and economic –mercantilism)
Mercantilism –protectionism (cannot trust other States in comparative advantage system
so protect your own and strive for self sufficiency), interstate competition, colonial
Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
Emergence of sovereign state system
French and Swedish were fighting the catholic forces in Austria
End of the 30 years war
Treaty upheld the sovereignty of little States (≠extraterritoriality so Church did not like it)
– EACH STATE HAD FREEDOM OF RELIGION
Classical balance of power (b.o.p)
Emergence of bop
Treaty of Westphalia was States getting together to determine the new status quo.
Frequency of wars BUT No significant territorial changes
1.Recognition that each state wants to preserve their own independence 2.Realization that the best way to secure state is to preserve the system of which it is a
3.No one State should be able to gain preponderance over other States.
Wars were frequently needed to restore balance and to restore the status quo
Flexibility and speed with which States needed to respond implied that they needed an
Transition to postabsolutism
New class structure: peasants (economic activity) become the industrial workers that seek
more economic power. Peasants do not live close to each other so could not revolt as
much but industrial workers can.
Emergence of economic class
3sided power struggle
UK: relative smoothness during revolution (push and pull of different forces, it was
France: much more dramatic break from absolutist era (King was much stronger in
France so revolutionary break was necessary)
New leadership (population becomes political actor because of urbanization) based on
nationalism (derived power from the Asabiyyah of nationalism).
Replaces old religious Asabiyyah
Imposition of one national language
Fulfills spiritual needs– transcends individual needs
Revolutions lead to war because:
Revolutions are a threat to an ideological model (ex: when the French king is
decapitated, all the other kings in Europe reunited to crush the revolution)
Nation’s instability in time of revolution makes neighboring countries want to
come in and try to acquire territory.
There was an emergence of the citizen army that mobilized to fight for