• Conflict doesn’t happen because countries are liberal democracies
• Can’t have art or philosophy in a liberal world?
o Do these ideas work only under war?
o Everything we value goes out the window along with war
o Somehow your life has to be at stake
In order to evoke these ideas, must be bigger than oneself, bigger than life
• Most important aspect of war is the incompatibilities between cultures
o All different cultures
• Values are not universal and compatible, will always be conflictual
• Actors aren’t going to be states, but civilizations
o Still act like states though
• Russia and India counterweighs between Muslim and Western World
• Problem is the groupings are so broad and some don’t even have the same history
• Terrorists devote so much time to this ideology, devote their life
• What is the role of culture in all of this?
o Huntington addresses this issue
o Terrorists feel their position is justified
• Universal Values?
o Liberals believe yes
o Kenen say no
o Different religious leaders believe are there basic rules that should be applied to
o We cannot ignore these human rights violations
• Enforcement Paradox (Hoffman)
o Transform countries so that boundaries are jails for the lower class
o Make places more welcoming to those being oppressed
o Wants US intervention in countries where the leader is oppressive
However, unlikely to intervene where there are no personal interests
Needs an incentive
• However, viewed as hypocritical because it won’t help other