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IR 1.22.docx

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Political Science
Kelly Greenhill

IR 1.22 IR and Foreign Policy; Levels ofAnalysis • Mental Maps and Social Facts o incorrect maps created not just because of indecent technology, but also for political gain  California was considered a Spanish island o people believe what they want to believe due to their own interests o “Anyone who thinks theANC is going to run SouthAfrica is living in cloud cuckoo land.” (Margaret Thatcher, 1987) o “The phonograph is of no commercial use” (Thomas Edison, 1880) o when numbers are released; the more precise the numbers, the more convinced we are of their intellect and accuracy (i.e. sales forecast) o “They’ll be waiting for us with flowers.” (Douglas Feith, former Undersecretary of Defense for G.W. Bush on the Iraqis’reaction to U.S. intervention) • Levels ofAnalysis o 1) Individual (Decision-making)  units within states  emphasizes significance of decisions taken by groups, bureaucracies and individuals inside states  behavior may be driven by innate human nature or more idiosyncratic, context- specific factors  some key individuals level variables: leaders’psychological/cognitive make-up, sub-national interest groups, bureaucratic politics, inter-party politics  examples: Napoleon o 2) National (Actor)  states  emphasizes significance of factors that characterize different units (states)  nature of the unit determines its behavior, goals, and motivations  variations in unit factors explain variation in outcomes  variables: regime type, religion, level of system satisfaction (status quo vs. revisionist states)  examples: revolutions (from an international stand point) o 3) International (System)  any and all states in this system will essentially act the same way  emphasizes the nature of system, and what it conditions key units (states) to do • anarchy (not anti-government, rather no set leader, order, or authority)  explains outcomes and drives states’behavior • states can’t really depend on any others except themselves  major focus is on explaining broad
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