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PS-0061 (45)

IR 2.12.docx

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Tufts University
Political Science
Kelly Greenhill

IR 2.12 Cold War • 1944-1947: End of WWII, Cold War begins • 1947-53: CW heats up, Korean War o Korean War still not officially over • 1954-57: First détente, renewal of dialogue • 1958-62: crisis years, on the brink • 1963-68: stabilization, MAD, peripheral crises o MAD: MutuallyAssured Destruction o Vietnam War o Nixon elected in 1968 • 1969-78: détente, dialogue o decline in severity • 1979-85: CW resurgence, peripheral crises o 1979: Soviet invasion in China o Reagon elected • 1985-91 towards the end of CW o wall falls in 89 • 1991: Soviet Union collapses Key Issues and Events in the Lead-up to and in the Early Cold War (1944-50) • end of WWII (Poland, Yalta, Potsdam) • US atomic bomb • post WWII period • X article—containment strategy o 3 choices: isolationism, rollback, containment o George F Kennan  Russian expert  Chief of Mission at Moscow Embassy  sent the Long Telegram in 1946, which was published in ForeignAffairs July 1947 as “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” by “X” • US should adopt a policy of “patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies” o “To avoid destruction the US need only measure up to its own best traditions and prove itself worthy of preservation as a great nation • Truman Doctrine o Truman warned that if Greece fell to the rebels “confusion and disorder might well spread throughout the Middle East… Failure to step in may endanger the peace of the world—and shall surely endanger the welfare of the nation.” o US must not resist Soviet military power but must support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures o predicated on belief in the domino theory—if one country falls, others will follow • Berlin Airlift • China goes communist o US did not intervene • Soviet atomic bomb • NATO o NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization o successful Soviet nuclear test; loss of US atomic monopoly o to signal commitment to WE NATO formed (1949)  begins largely as a political construct; military apparatus follows with onset of Korean War o NSC-68  written like a propaganda document to US (1950)  made containment against global Communist expansion a high priority o Soviet perception NATO balancing and creation of Warsaw Pact (1955) o Cold War MilitaryAlliances: Warsaw Pact vs. NATO • Korean War COMECON: • Council for Mutual EconomicAssistance • 1949 o originally comprised Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Soviet Union • was the Soviet economic response to Marshall Plan and the creation of the Organization for Economic Cooperation in Europe • attempt to build regional bloc of markets following disconnection as the iron curtain rose • designed to forestall pull of eastern states (and other global actual and potential satellites) into western sphere of influence European Coal and Steel Community: • 1952: what we know as the EU began with Treaty of Paris, establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), to rebuild and regulate European industry and improve commerce post WWII • also had a security related objective, control Germany • founding states: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands • 1957; Treaties of Rome were signed by 6 member states, creating: o European Economic Community (EEC) o EuropeanAtomic Energy Community (Euroatom) o worked concurrently with ECSC Causes of the Cold War: • 6 theories: o Communist totalitarian expansion  2 variants • Soviets Eastern Europe as a threat to US security • Soviets triggered response by US lobbying groups o Communist barbarism  Western human rights, freedoms (not about the Soviet aggression to expand, great powers will
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