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PSY-0001 (107)
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Lecture

10-30-12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Urry
Semester
Fall

Description
10­30­12 • Personality: the characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that  are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances • Personality psychologists study the influence of culture, learning, biology, and  cognition on the development of personality traits o A characteristic; dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time  and across circumstances • Define: o Psychodynamic: o Humanistic: o Behavioral: o Cognitive: o Trait approach: • Psychologists measure personality by o Having people report on themselves o Asking people’s friends or relatives to describe them o Watching how people behave o Each method has strengths and limitations • Personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret  ambiguous stimuli o The idea is that people will reveal hidden aspects of personality such as  motives, wishes, and unconscious conflicts o Ex: inkblot tests • Objective measures o Personality tests that relatively directly assess personality through self­ report questionnaires or observer ratings o A questionnaire might  Target a specific trait, such as how much excitement a person seeks  out of life (sensation seeking)  Assess a large inventory of traits • NEO personality inventory consists of 240 items designed  to assess the Big Five personality factors • California Q­Sort: participants are given 100 cards with  statements printed on them. They then sort the cards into  nine piles according to how well they describe themselves • How is personality assessed? o Depends on one’s theoretical orientation  Psychodynamic psychologists would tend to use projective  measures  Trait approach psychologists would tend to use objective measures • Trait approach to personality o Focuses on how individuals differ in personality dispositions, such as  sociability, cheerfulness, and aggressiveness o The traits that have been identified were developed by factor analysis  Groups items according to similarities • The Big Five o Five­factor theory: 5 basic personality traits o OCEAN  Openness to experience • Imaginative vs down to earth • Variety vs routine • Independent vs conforming  Conscientiousness • Organized vs disorganized • Careful vs careless  Extraversion • Social bs retiring • Fun loving vs sober • Affectionate vs observed  Agreeableness • Softhearted vs ruthless • Trusting vs suspicious • Helpful vs uncooperative  Neuroticism (aka emotional stability) • Worried vs calm • Insecure vs secure • Self pitying vs sel
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