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Lecture

9-27-12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Urry
Semester
Fall

Description
9­27­12 • Learning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience • Associations develop through conditioning o Environmental stimuli and behavioral responses become connected • Types of learning o Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning o Operant conditioning o Observational learning • Classical conditioning o A neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a  stimulus that already produces that response o Pavlov’s Dogs  Food already causes salivation  Bell alone does not cause salivation  Bell becomes associated with food  Bell alone can cause salivation after conditioning o Food = unconditioned stimulus (US) o Salivation to food = unconditioned response (UR) o Sound = conditioned stimulus (CS or CS+) o Salivation to sound = conditioned response (CR) o Requires multiple trials for association to be made o Association can fade as bell is rung without food given after  Called extinction  Association is not forgotten, only weakened • Fear conditioning o US is aversive, not appetitive  Ex: electric shock, air puff to eye o UR: freezing or startle response or increased skin conductance o CS: tone or colored light o In humans  Finger shock>>increased skin conductance  Light + shock>>increased skin conductance  Repeat association  Light alone>>increased skin conductance • Fear conditioning and phobias o Phobias could arise from fear conditioning  Phobia of dogs, snakes o Preparedness: some stimuli may be more likely than others to become CSs o However, most people with phobias do not report classical conditioning  experiences related to their phobias o Still, the fear conditioning model has informed the treatment of phobias
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