Chapter 2: Research in Psychology
Introduction to research:
Unifying theme: Psychology is EMPIRICAL
Theory vs Hypothesis
A theory are concepts observed and predictions about future events
Hypothesis is what will happen if theory was correct. It’s a specific prediction of what should be observed.
Theory: humans have a dinner stomach and a desert stomach
Hypothesis: If a human eats dinner until they are full, they still easily eat desert.
Research would fail and the researcher would have to consider a new theory.
Theory: Mood affects helping behavior. People who are in a good ood will be more likely to help others,
than people who are in a bad mood.
Hypothesis: After finding a dollar, people will be more likely to agree to complete a survey than people who
did not find a survey.
Design a study, collect data, analyze results, draw conclusions
Theory is supported, discarded, or revised/retested.
1. Archival Studies
Examining existing records of past events. Existing data
Eg: Crime rates in certain cities
2. Case Studies
An indepth investigation of an individual subject (person). Then apply that information Dangerous because its limited to just one subject . For a case study to be valid, the subject has to
have something very very specific
Eg: HM (Henry Molaison)
He suffered from severe epileptic seizures. Doctors simply removed the legion that caused seizures BUT
problem… he could never store new memory from that moment onward. therefore, that data is useful for
3. Correlational Studies
Statistical measure of the extent to which two variables are associated
“Correlation is not causation”
Positive correlational study: both variables decrease or increase together. +1
Eg: Having high SAT scores doesn’t cause a high GPA in college, but if you came into college with a 2400,
the likelihood is higher
No correlation : no relationship between two variabl