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PSY-0001 (107)
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Clinical Disorders and Treatment.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Yvonne Wakeford
Semester
Fall

Description
Clinical Disorders and Treatment Causes of psychological disorders ­ Positive reinforcement of inappropriate behavior or punishment of appropriate behavior  (behaviorist approach) ­ Irrational or maladaptive thinking (social­cognitive approach) ­ Incongruence between real and ideal self (humanistic approach) Views of mental disorders ­ Early views of mental disorders held to the somatogenic hypothesis o Disorders are the result of a specific injury or infection ­ Sigmund Feud, in contrast, argued for the psychogenic hypothesis o Mental disorders are rooted in psychological processes What is abnormal? ­ Atypical, disturbing, maladaptive & harmful, and unjustifiable behavior ­ Not: o Statistical infrequency o A violation of social norms o Personal distress o Disability/dysfunction o Unexpectedness Diathesis­stress model ­ Amount of stress is a function of the predisposition for the disorder Insanity: a legal ruling that an accused individual is not responsible for a crime Syndrome: collection of symptoms DSM­5 changes ­ Axes description no longer exists ­ Categorical approach is replaced by dimensional approach (continuum) ­ Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: DSM­IV subtypes of schizophrenia are eliminated ­ Childhood disorders including ADHD and autism spectrum disorder ­ Takes into account cultural issues in assessing psychopathology Co­Morbidity ­ Many people suffer from more than one psychological disorder Anxiety disorders (29% lifetime prevalence in U.S. population) ­ Phobias o Specific (simple): intense, paralyzing fear of some object or thing o Social: excessive, inappropriate fears connected with social situations or  performances in front of other people ­ Panic disorder o An anxiety disorder characterized be recurrent panic attacks  A sudden, unpredictable, and overwhelming experience of intense fear or  terror without any reasonable cause ­ Generalized Anxiety Disorder o An anxiety disorder characterized by prolonged vague but intense fears ­ OCD o An anxiety disorder in which a person feels drives to think disturbing thoughts  (obsessions) and/or to perform senseless rituals (compulsions) ­ PTSD o Intense feelings of distress after traumatic experiences Behavioral Therapies ­ Encouraging appropriate behavior ­ Classical conditioning techniques o Systematic Desensitization  Person is taught relaxation skills  Person describes anxiety­provoking situation in great detail  While deeply relaxed, the person imagines anxiety­provoking scenes  Person is gradually exposed to anxiety­provoking stimuli while remaining  relaxed o Flooding  Fully immersing person in anxiety­provoking situation  Ex. child in pool o Aversive Conditioning  Learning to associate bad practice with discomfort and pain  Ex. Beer and laxative ­ Operate conditioning techniques o Reward and punishment o Token economies  Paying patients with currency so they can buy something in institution’s  gift shop ­ Major depression in remission o Distinct bouts of severe depression o Daily depressed mood o Diminished interest in activities o Significant unwanted weight loss o Sleep disturbance o Decreased energy o Suicidal ideation and attempt(s) ­ Why is Max depressed? o Humanistic explanation  Struggle between ideal self and actual self  Victim of conditional positive regard o Biological perspective (trait theory)  Genetic predisposition • 50% for identical twin • 20% fraternal twin o Psychoanalytic explanation  Unresolved anger towards one’s parent  Adult losses evoke feelings associate with losses in childhood o Social­Learning explanation  Depression may rise from depressive explanatory style • Theory of Learned Helplessness (Seligman, 1975) o A learned expectation that one cannot control important life  outcomes, resulting in apathy and depression o Three dimensions of reasoning
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