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Social Relations.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Yvonne Wakeford
Semester
Fall

Description
Social Relations Attitudes ­ Affect (feelings) o Ex. hating snakes ­ Behavior (actions you would take) o Ex. running away when snakes in sight ­ Cognition (thoughts, beliefs) o Ex. bias against snakes Attitude formation ­ Social learning ­ Direct experience ­ Social comparison o Ex. Asch’s experiment ­ Genetic factors ­ Self perception o People observe themselves to figure out the reasons they act as they do Do attitudes influence behavior? ­ Richard Lapiere (1934) visited 250 restaurants and hotels with a Chinese couple o Denied service at only one establishment o Sent survey to other owners, where 92% stated they would not let the couple in o 0.03 correlation between attitudes and behavior ­ Need to design better experiments to test people’s commitment to attitudes to tap private  conformity Under what circumstances do attitudes change? ­ People are motivated by the desire to be cognitively consistent o Want beliefs, attitudes and behavior to be compatible with each other ­ “How much I enjoyed the task?” (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1957) o People who were paid less rated the experiment more favorably  People who were paid $20 had the justification to lie  People who were paid $1 experienced insufficient justification for  cognitive dissonance ­ Three self­persuasion processes explained by cognitive dissonance theory o Justifying attitude­discrepant behavior (insufficient justification)  “I have my reasons” o Justifying effort  “I suffered for it, so I like it” o Justifying difficult decisions  “Of course I was right” Social Relations ­ Whom do we chose to hate and like? ­ Affect (prejudice), Behavior (discrimination), Cognition (positive/negative stereotypes) Stereotype & prejudice formation ­ Personality factors ­ Social learning theory o Social, family roles o Movies ­ Cognitive factors o Social categorization (ex. wasp, redneck) o Carving the world into us versus them (ingroup and outgroup)  Ingroup members perceive other ingroup members as more similar to them  than are outgroup members o Outgroup­homogeneity bias  The tendency to assume that “they” are all alike o Ingroup favoritism  The tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups (Henri  Tajfel, 1979) ­ Situational factors o Social identity theory  Viewing and treating ingroups more favorably than outgroups can boost  self­image o Realistic conflict theory (Sherif, 1961)  Prejudice stems from intergroup competition for limited resources
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