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Treatment of Psychological Disorders.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Yvonne Wakeford
Semester
Fall

Description
Treatment of Psychological Disorders How are disorders treated? ­ Psychological disorders need to be managed over time through treatment ­ Treatment depends on the type and severity of symptoms as well on the diagnosis (DSM  V) ­ Most mental disorders can be treated in more than one way ­ Two basic categories of techniques to treat mental disorders: o Psychological, Biological Major types of specialized mental practitioners ­ Clinical psychologists (Ph.D or Psy.D.) o Academic or hospital settings ­ Psychiatrists (MD) o Hospitals or private practice o Most qualified ­ Counseling psychologists (Ph.D.) o Schools/college counselors o Private practice ­ Psychiatric social workers (Master’s in social work) o Psychiatric hospitals, house calls ­ Psychiatric nurses (Bachelor’s in nursing) o Hospitals or residential treatment programs ­ Paraprofessionals (limited advanced training) o Outreach programs, residential treatment programs Psychological category ­ Psychodynamic Therapy o Focus on insight  Create an awareness of unconscious psychological processes and how they  affect daily functioning o Free association  Throw out word, write down everything that comes to mind (tapping into  unconscious o Analysis of dreams  Manifest content (ex. falling)  Latent content (ex. feeling out of control) o Analysis of resistance  An unwillingness or inability to talk about certain thoughts, motives or  experiences  Topics should be explored in greater depth ­ Client­Centered Therapy o Encourages people to fulfill their individual potentials for personal growth  through greater self­understanding  Therapists strive to create a safe and comforting setting for clients to  access their true feelings, to be empathic and to accept the client through  unconditional positive regard  Therapist will use reflective listening, in which the therapist repeats the  client’s concerns to help the person clarify feelings ­ Behavior Therapy o Behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned through the use of classical  and operant conditioning o Self­monitoring o Role playing and modeling o Behavior modification  Rewards and punishments o Token economies ­ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) o Insight of fear/OCD does not equal cure o Exposure  Repeated exposure to an anxiety producing stimulus or situation  Helps maintain safe and systematic contact • Anxiety level will plateau and gradually decrease if stay in contact  with stimulus  Systematic desensitization • Gradual form of exposure • Usually preferable over flooding o Ex. imagining yourself on elevator▯watching other people  ride elevator▯elevator to second floor▯third floor▯top  floor▯fear no longer interferes  Flooding • Full immersion exposure • Requires complete commitment by participant o Cognitive restructuring  Shift in beliefs and interpretations o Relaxation techniques  Stress inoculation training o Group therapy  Advantages • Often significantly less expensive than individual treatment • Provides an opportunity for members to improve their social skills  and learn form one another’s experiences  Many groups are organized around a particular type of problem (ex. sexual  abuse) or around particular type of client (ex. adolescents)  Therapy may be highly structured, or more loosely organized for  discussion Culture can affect the therapeutic process ­ Multiple influences on the way psychological disorders are expressed, which people with  psychological disorders are likely to recover, and people’s willingness to seek help ­ Plays a critical role in determining the availability, use, and effectiveness of different  types of psychotherapy for various cultural and ethnic groups living within any country Treatments that focus on behavior and on cognition are superior for anxiety disorders ­ Treatment approaches to anxiety disorders have mixed success o Psychoanalytic theory did not prove useful for treating anxiety disorders o Evidence suggests that cognitive­behavioral therapy works best to treat most adult 
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