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Social Influence.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Yvonne Wakeford
Semester
Fall

Description
Social Influence Continuum of Social Influence ­ Yielding to influence o Obedience (orders, commands), compliance (request, appeal), conformity  (expectations)  Obedience is most direct pressure  Conformity is most indirect pressure ­ Resisting Influence  o Independence, assertiveness, defiance Two types of conformity ­ Private conformity o Internalized o Genuine ­ Public conformity o Façade o Showing that we are within the realm of normalcy Two types of influence ­ Informational influence o The desire to be right ­ Normative influence o The desire to be liked o Sherif’s (36) study of norms’ crystallization  Subjects in dark room were shown a light and while alone estimated the  distance the light moved  In three group sessions, they again made distance estimations  Subjects’ estimates converged on a common value, thus establishing a  group norm  Example of indirect pressure to conform, informational influence, and  private conformity ­ Best and worst of human nature can be brought out by manipulating environment ­ Asch’s conformity experiment o People chose in accordance with confederate opinion o Irregular views were agreed with o 70­75% made erroneous choices at least once o If one of the confederates answered correctly, subject was empowered to answer  correctly o Normative influence, indirect pressure, public conformity ­ Stanley Milgram’s obedience experiment o Inspired by curiosity with Nazi solider conformity during the Holocaust o Electric shock for every mistake in “memory” experiment  Stronger with each mistake o 2/3 of the subjects finished the experiment (electrocuted at lethal level) o Expressed disappointment but did not disobey o Hundreds of subjects obeyed the experimenter o Hideous crimes have been committed in the name of obedience ­ Zimbardo’s compliance experiment (Stanford) o A small group of healthy students chosen to be guards, while others became  principles o Prisoners established lowly status  Lived in tiny cells and treated badly o The illusion became the reality  The boundary between role playing and real identity was erased • Nice boys became brutal guards • Active prisoners became passive • Many prisoners developed extreme stress reactions • No one ever said they quit the experiment (had l
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