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Lecture

Human Development.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY-0001
Professor
Yvonne Wakeford

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Description
Human Development Developmental Psychology ­ The study of how people grow, mature, and change over the lifespan, in physiology,  cognition, emotion and social Brain Development ­ Myelination o Nerve fibers are wrapped in a fatty sheath o Happens rapidly after birth ­ Synaptic pruning o Connections that are used are preserved; otherwise they are lost Infant Research ­ Looking—most robust nonverbal response ­ Looking time—earliest dependent measure ­ Assumption—given a choice, infants prefer novel stimuli so look longer at novel stimuli  as compared to familiar stimuli Habituation ­ The simplest form of learning ­ The tendency of an organism to become familiar with a stimulus as a result of repeated  exposure ­ Measure time baby looks at yellow square o Time decreases with repetition of stimulus o Increasing when changes to yellow triangle (dishabituation)  Longer looking time for new stimulus ­ Longer looking time for split rod Jean Piaget (1886­1980) ­ French developmental psychologist who developed first working theory of cognitive  development ­ Important springboard for field ­ Theory of Adaptation o Schemas, or mental representations of the world, that guide the processes of  assimilation and accommodation  Assimilation: the process by which we place new information into an  existing schema (ex. Calling a cat “doggy”)  Accommodation: creating a new space for something that doesn’t fit in an  existing schema (ex. creating new schema for the kitty) ­ Stages of Development o Each stage is qualitatively different from others o Ages for stage transitions are approximate  Sensorimotor (~0­2) • Acquire information about the world through their senses and  motor skills • According to Piaget, one important cognitive concept developed  during this stage is object permanence o The understanding that an object continues to exist even  when it cannot be seen  Preoperational (~2­7) • Children think symbolically about objects, but they reason based  on intuition and superficial appearance rather than logic • Have no understanding of the law of conservation of quantity: that  is, even if a substance’s appearance changes, its quantity may  rema
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