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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Sam Sommers
Semester
Fall

Description
Motivation for Food, Sex, & Achievement 04/15/2014 Motivation Factors that energize initiate, direct, and sustain behavior Factors can be Physical ▯ need for sleep and food Psychological ▯ things that inspire people to set goals and try to achieve them  What motivates behavior? Needs States of biological or social deficiency  Physiological (food, water) Safety To be with others Achievement Needs create Drives  ▯ psychological states that motivate one to satisfy a need Drives create arousals, which motivate behavior  Process: Need ▯ Drive ▯  arousal ▯ Behavior     Oxygen ▯ Feeling of suffocation ▯  arousal ▯ Breathing      Food ▯ Hunger ▯  arousal ▯ Eating     Water ▯ Thirst ▯  arousal ▯ Drinking  Engaging in the behavior reduces arousal Yerkes­Dodson Law More arousal not necessarily better Shows optimal level of arousal  Motivation for Food  Time and taste determine what we eat Pavlov (classical conditioning) ▯ conditioned to believe that when it comes a certain time, it’s time to eat Varied diets produce more eating  Culture determines what we eat  Familiarity determines preferences Infants overcome “neophobia” through small doses of exposure as well as modeling  Multiple Neural Processes Control Eating The hypothalamus integrates the various inhibitory an excitatory feeding messages and organizes  behaviors involved in eating Hunger drive The lateral and ventromedial areas of the hypothalamus play a central role in the hunger drive Damage to ventromedial area creates hyperphagia (over­eating) Damage to lateral area creates aphagia (under­eating) Motivation for Sex Not necessary to have sex but motivation is extremely strong Ex. Anthony Weiner had particularly strong motivation  Alfred Kinsey (1940s & 50s) First scientific survey of human sexual behavior “Shocking” discoveries  90% of males and >50% of females masturbate 26% of married women had extra­marital affairs  Masters & Johnson Direct observation of 382 women and 3212 men in “10,000 complete cycles of sexual r
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