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Lecture

PSY-0001 Lecture Notes - Propranolol, Striatum

7 pages36 viewsFall 2012

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY-0001
Professor
Sam Sommers

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Memory 04/15/2014
Sensory memory  Short-term/working memory  Long-term memory
Long-Term Memory Systems
Explicit (conscious)
Episodic
Memory for episodes, experiences
Includes time and place that it occurred
Ex. Memory of 16th birthday
Semantic
Memory for information/knowledge and facts
Not tied to specific time or place
Ex. meaning of words, rules of a game
Implicit (non-conscious)
Procedural
Memory for motor procedures (muscle memory)  get better over time
Ex. learn to ride a bike and then ride again after years, mirror tracing
Classical conditioning
Conditioned responses (don’t need to explicitly remember for this to occur)
H. M. Patient
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No left or right hippocampus
Serious problems with explicit memory
Remote episodic and semantic memory
Couldn’t encode new explicit memory
Implicit memory intact  different brain system: striatum
Emotional Memory
Emotionally arousing events or stimuli are remembered better than non-arousing ones
Studied in rodents and humans
“Emotional modulation of memory” – memory can be boosted by emotional arousal
Why?
Strong emotions are a sign that something important is occurring (so good to remember)
Important for safety (e.g., remembering that you heard gun shots in a neighborhood so that you avoid that
area)
Biology of what happens in an emotionally arousing situation
Epinephrine & norepinephrine (NE) release (aka adrenaline & noradrenaline)
Cortisol release (stress hormones)NE and cortisol bind to (different) receptors in the amygdala
Amygdala
Signals hippocampus to increase memory encoding
To study this: researchers can manipulate these brain structures and neurotransmitters and observe
changes in emotional memory
Bilateral amygdala lesions (in animals)
Only impair boost in memory, not memory in general
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