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chap 7.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY-0001
Professor
Sam Sommers

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Memory 04/15/2014
Sensory memory  Short-term/working memory  Long-term memory
Long-Term Memory Systems
Explicit (conscious)
Episodic
Memory for episodes, experiences
Includes time and place that it occurred
Ex. Memory of 16th birthday
Semantic
Memory for information/knowledge and facts
Not tied to specific time or place
Ex. meaning of words, rules of a game
Implicit (non-conscious)
Procedural
Memory for motor procedures (muscle memory)  get better over time
Ex. learn to ride a bike and then ride again after years, mirror tracing
Classical conditioning
Conditioned responses (don’t need to explicitly remember for this to occur)
H. M. Patient
No left or right hippocampus
Serious problems with explicit memory
Remote episodic and semantic memory
Couldn’t encode new explicit memory
Implicit memory intact  different brain system: striatum
Emotional Memory
Emotionally arousing events or stimuli are remembered better than non-arousing ones
Studied in rodents and humans
“Emotional modulation of memory” – memory can be boosted by emotional arousal
Why?
Strong emotions are a sign that something important is occurring (so good to remember)
Important for safety (e.g., remembering that you heard gun shots in a neighborhood so that you avoid that
area)
Biology of what happens in an emotionally arousing situation
Epinephrine & norepinephrine (NE) release (aka adrenaline & noradrenaline)
Cortisol release (stress hormones)NE and cortisol bind to (different) receptors in the amygdala
Amygdala
Signals hippocampus to increase memory encoding
To study this: researchers can manipulate these brain structures and neurotransmitters and observe
changes in emotional memory
Bilateral amygdala lesions (in animals)
Only impair boost in memory, not memory in general

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Description
Memory 04/15/2014 Sensory memory ▯ Short­term/working memory ▯ Long­term memory Long­Term Memory Systems Explicit (conscious) Episodic  Memory for episodes, experiences Includes time and place that it occurred Ex. Memory of 16th birthday Semantic Memory for information/knowledge and facts  Not tied to specific time or place Ex. meaning of words, rules of a game Implicit (non­conscious) Procedural Memory for motor procedures (muscle memory) ▯ get better over time Ex. learn to ride a bike and then ride again after years, mirror tracing  Classical conditioning  Conditioned responses (don’t need to explicitly remember for this to occur) H. M. Patient No left or right hippocampus  Serious problems with explicit memory Remote episodic and semantic memory Couldn’t encode new explicit memory Implicit memory intact ▯ different brain system:  striatum  Emotional Memory  Emotionally arousing events or stimuli are remembered better than non­arousing ones  Studied in rodents and humans  “Emotional modulation of memory” – memory can be boosted by emotional arousal Why? Strong emotions are a sign that something important is occurring (so good to remember)  Important for safety (e.g., remembering that you heard gun shots in a neighborhood so that you avoid that  area) Biology of what happens in an emotionally arousing situation  Epinephrine & norepinephrine (NE) release (aka adrenaline & noradrenaline) Cortisol release (stress hormones)NE and cortisol bind to (different) receptors in the amygdala Amygdala Signals hippocampus to increase memory encoding  To study this: researchers can manipulate these brain structures and neurotransmitters and observe  changes in emotional memory Bilateral amygdala lesions (in animals) Only impair boost in memory, not memory in general  Bock beta NE receptors in the amygdala with a drug (propranolol)  This does not tally “erase” the memory These can be distorted or partially forgotten,3 even if they feel accurate  Deese­Reodiger­Mcdermott (DRM) – Dream Paradigm Presenting people with a series of words all related to a target word, but not giving the target word One way to demonstrate and study false memories  Memory is fallible Leads to interesting conclusions including that DRM illusion is positively associated with:  Inconsistencies in people’s reports of past events Tendency to report memories of past lives and alien abduction Age – this type of false memory is more likely among adults than young children  Illusions relies on semantic memory system: memory for knowledge about the world around us There is a spreading activation in semantic memory  False Memories More common than we think they are Can arise even when we’re very confident in our won accuracy  Often grow out of normal cognitive tendencies and processes Lotus & Palmer (1974) PS (people in experiment) watch film of car accident, asked to estimate speed the cars were traveling “About how fast were the cars going they ___ (smashed, collided, bumped, hit, contacted) each other?” one week later, PS asked if they had seen broken glass in film  14% in “hit” condition remembered glass 32% in “smashed” conditio
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