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PSY 36 Lecture Notes 1-27-2014.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0036
Professor
Keith Maddox
Semester
Spring

Description
Experimental Design PSY 36 Lecture Notes Chang-Po Philip Chen I. Why is experimental design important? a. To do good research, you need to know how to design a rigorous study b. To evaluate research findings effectively, you need to know about the methodology that was used to collect the data. II. Anatomy of an experiment a. Independent variable (manipulation) >> b. Control (what you can) >> c. Random assignment (for what we can’t control) >> d. Dependent variable (measure) >> III. Experimental Designs a. Manipulation with varying degrees of control and assignment to comparison groups b. Pseudo-Experimental i. Control over manipulation w/o comparison groups (or random assignment) c. Quasi-Experimental i. Control over manipulation of IV w/o random assignment d. True Experimental i. Control over manipulation of IV w/ random assignment IV. Between-subjects vs. within-subjects a. Between subjects: i. Each group of participants exposed to a different experimental condition ii. Random sampling and assignment iii.All participants treated nearly identically (w/ exception of IV) iv. Useful when manipulation is obvious, subject matter is delicate b. Within-subjects i. All participants exposed to all experimental conditions ii. Powerful design because each participant is compared to himself or herself – no need for identical treatment, little error iii.Useful when manipulation is subtle V. Example Study: Threats to the Status of Ingroups a. Branscombe & Wann (1994) b. Do people derogate outgroups when their own identities are threatened? c. Independent Variable: Threat i. Conceptual: Threat present or absent ii. Operational: Rocky loses to or defeats Soviet boxer d. Dependent Variables: i. Conceptual: outgroup derogation, self-esteem ii. Operational: Negative ratings of Soviets, Rosenberg SE e. Independent Variable (manipulation) Checklist i. Internal validity ii. External validity iii. Feasibility f. Control (what you can) Checklist i. Identify potential confounds g. RandomAssignment (for what we can’t control) Checklist i. All participants are randomly assigned h. Dependent Variable (measure) Checklist i. Internal validity ii. External validity VI. Theory and hypothesis a. Theory/Hypothesis i. A(falsifiable) statement describing the relationship between two or more conceptual variables 1. E.g., Social Identity Theory 2. Hypothesis: Participants whose identities are threatened will derogate outgroup members (more than non-threatened participants) in order to feel better about their identities. b. Prediction i. Astatement of a hypothesis in terms of its operational definitions 1. Participants in the “threat present” condition will rate Soviets more negatively than participants in the “threat absent” condition. VII. Operational Definitions a. Examples Conceptual Operational Threat Exposure to movie
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