ENV Policy.docx

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Tufts University
Urban & Env Policy & Planning

ENV Policy Species Functions Indicator species: defines trait/characteristic of that environment Umbrella species: large habitat requirements; to protect it is to protect may other species Keystone Species: disproportionate impact on its environment relative to abundance/biomass Foundation Species: Flagship Species: warm and fuzzy charistmatic megafauna Species distribution: World Hotspots 25 major hotspots on earth - Hawaiian rainforest - Madagascar - Tropical andes Cover 1.4% of earths surgace - equal n size to texas+ Alaska estimated acquisition cost- 25 Billion without endangered species act, there would be no protection of endangered species at all ESA - if its on the list, a lot of obligations apply - if a species is on the list, it is protected from being put in danger o gov can take action to prevent species from being put in jeopardy o main threat from humans is habitat destruction - incidental take permits o possible to get an hcp to enable a development to go forward that would normally effect the species, they have to do something to mitigate it o jury is out on this working o tendency for this to be built around time frames - argument that should be focusing on protecting ecosystems, not species o doesn't need to be an either/or, but this just focuses on species Habitat Conservation Planning - Biodiversity- rationals - Utilitarian o Precautionary principle ( highcost of loss) o Species rich ecosystems more productive o “bio-prospoecting” for usefull drugs o part of a dynamic, complex - ethical - spiritual - biological o stewardship may “arise form emotions programmed in the very genes of human social behavior” - asethics Objective vs. Subjective Value ΩΩΩΩΩΩΩΩΩΩxzΩΩΩ Austin! Austin built on the line between a limestone escarpment and good agricultural land Barton Springs – water comes down into the limestone, comes out and the water bubbles back up - water is getting more polluted, because of development upstream - people trying to protect endangered species upstream to keep the water clean Limestone- lots of it, used for building, whatnot, typical is lots of hills, creeks, shallow water What causes SprawL? Pre existing sprawl Segregated zoning Expansive infastrcutre Dislocation of multiple public investments Absence of density incentives/requirements Absence of macro- planning Demands of “efficient” corporate structure Dispersed job sites, multi-earner households Cheaper land in “greenfield” area Population vs Vehicle miles traveled growth Smart growth goals, principles - preserve public goods (air, water, land) - minimize adverse land use impacts - maximize positive lande use impacts - minimize public expense( efficiency) - maximize social equity greening of industry points of regulation - “end of the Pipe” - Location of Sellers (incentives, land-use controls) - Location of Buyers - Upstream: Production processes - Upstream: Raw Material Inputs, wholesalers - Upstream: Alter demand for/supply of Product X Four regulatoryAPproaches 1. command and control- bottom line allowed (controlling smokestacks wtv) 2. results based- with oversight 3. market based 4. volunteerism ( with relief from rules) POWer - cities can be safe, good places to live o with proper use of power - cities get power from states, states from National o nationally weak power o most power comes from states - eminent domain - If the city or town has the power to adopt regulations, the only way to minimize it is if it is conflict with state or fed law or preempted by state or fed o Conflict- o Preemption  State, fed, occupies the field, leaves no room for city regulation • Ex: taxes, nuclear power • Churches, educational facilities o If cities and towns could control those institutions, they would be forced out of business? • Areas that states deem so important, they don't trust cities and towns to handle  Basically, Cities don't have a seat at the table in these discussions, they report straight to the state  Dillon’s rule states • Cities and towns have very limited authority • State is much more paternalistic • Home rule state- local level government can do whatever you want to do o City or town gets the presumption of validity  Whenever they pass something it is presumed to be valid • Takes too much state resources
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