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Lecture 2

AHST 1100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Neutral Axis, Cella, Ancient Greek Architecture

1 pages22 viewsFall 2014

Department
Architectural History
Course Code
AHST 1100
Professor
Scott Bernhard
Lecture
2

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LECTURE 2 - ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
Trabeate System: Post & beam, beam spans columns  unsupported distance between
columns = span
**Beam spanning: At top resists compression, bottom resists tension, middle (“neutral axis”)
separates the two
-THE ARCH counteracts compression & tension, let Romans go bigger and more
elaborate
-AQUEDUCTS allowed for growth, water (ex: Pont du Gard!)
THE ARCH
-Technological tool, not just a linguistic expression
-Every stone is under compression
-Gravity load pushes straight down, lateral force goes sideways
-As long as lateral thrusts are dealt with, arches can be as big as you want
-Each stone sloped to be placed under compression
-Keystone placed last, makes the arch a load bearer vs. a burden  once placed, support walls
can be removed
-Scaffolding used to support arch until keystone is placed
Arch
Barrel Vault  can now place windows in vaults
Groin Vault  precursor to dome (basically an arch in all directions)
Roman Temple Type
-Larger cella, comes in contact with peristyle  “engaged columns”
-Can only approach from front, free-standing columns only by entrance
-Transition: Greek architecture only seen from outside, vs. Roman experienced from within
-References to Greek parent culture
Roman Urbanism
-Organized in grid, usually started as an army campus (“Castrum”)
-In castrum: gate in each direction, roads across N/S, E/W
-important temples and buildings at forum, at intersection of roads
-Straight streets, grid running to perimeters from forum (N/S: Cardo, E/W: Decumanus)
-Streets acted as sewage/drainage system too
-Walk around edges of forums via porticoes (“peristyle court”)
-Basilica = central building to forums, precursor to religious architecture, cella with a peristyle
inside
Note: A forum = 1 in all roman cities vs. THE forum = in Rome (not built on an axial street
structure)
-Basilia court: several storesi of open, groin vault windows near the top of vaults
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