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Lecture 2

LECTURE 2 - Roman Architecture.docx

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Department
Architectural History
Course Code
AHST 1100
Professor
Scott Bernhard

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LECTURE 2 - ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
Trabeate System: Post & beam, beam spans columns  unsupported distance between
columns = span
**Beam spanning: At top resists compression, bottom resists tension, middle (“neutral axis”)
separates the two
-THE ARCH counteracts compression & tension, let Romans go bigger and more
elaborate
-AQUEDUCTS allowed for growth, water (ex: Pont du Gard!)
THE ARCH
-Technological tool, not just a linguistic expression
-Every stone is under compression
-Gravity load pushes straight down, lateral force goes sideways
-As long as lateral thrusts are dealt with, arches can be as big as you want
-Each stone sloped to be placed under compression
-Keystone placed last, makes the arch a load bearer vs. a burden  once placed, support walls
can be removed
-Scaffolding used to support arch until keystone is placed
Arch
Barrel Vault  can now place windows in vaults
Groin Vault  precursor to dome (basically an arch in all directions)
Roman Temple Type
-Larger cella, comes in contact with peristyle  “engaged columns”
-Can only approach from front, free-standing columns only by entrance
-Transition: Greek architecture only seen from outside, vs. Roman experienced from within
-References to Greek parent culture
Roman Urbanism
-Organized in grid, usually started as an army campus (“Castrum”)
-In castrum: gate in each direction, roads across N/S, E/W
-important temples and buildings at forum, at intersection of roads
-Straight streets, grid running to perimeters from forum (N/S: Cardo, E/W: Decumanus)
-Streets acted as sewage/drainage system too
-Walk around edges of forums via porticoes (“peristyle court”)
-Basilica = central building to forums, precursor to religious architecture, cella with a peristyle
inside
Note: A forum = 1 in all roman cities vs. THE forum = in Rome (not built on an axial street
structure)
-Basilia court: several storesi of open, groin vault windows near the top of vaults

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Description
LECTURE 2ROMAN ARCHITECTURETrabeate System Postbeam beam spans columnsunsupported distance between columnsspanBeam spanning At top resists compression bottom resists tension middle neutral axis separates the twoTHE ARCH counteracts compressiontension let Romans go bigger and more elaborateAQUEDUCTS allowed for growth water ex Pont du GardTHE ARCHTechnological tool not just a linguistic expressionEvery stone is under compressionGravity load pushes straight down lateral force goes sidewaysAs long as lateral thrusts are dealt with arches can be as big as you wantEach stone sloped to be placed under compressionKeystone placed last makes the arch a load bearer vs a burdenonce placed support walls can be removedScaffolding used to support arch until keystone is placedArchBarrel Vaultcan now place windows in vaultsGroin Vaultprecursor to dome basically an arch in all directions Roman Tem
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