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Lecture 8

AHST 1100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Crystal Palace, London, Barrel Vault, Mass Production

2 pages44 viewsFall 2014

Department
Architectural History
Course Code
AHST 1100
Professor
Scott Bernhard
Lecture
8

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LECTURE 8 - ARCHITECTURE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
1851-1904
-“Crisis of language in architecture”  representing classical concepts with new technology
-1851: Changes made in Bibliotheque St. Genevieve put into a whole building…
Crystal Palace, London, by Bill Paxton
See: Kew Gardens, Palm House in London  use of poured glass (plate glass!)
-Smooth, clearer than ever before, cheaper too
-Mass production, economies of scale
-Steel frame mass produced  industrial precision and fast assembly
Paxton: Greenhouse master, built Crystal Palace to house industrial exhibition
-Super speedy, easy to take down and move
-Repetitious components
-Destroyed by fire - melting glass and metal
-Building kept warm via greenhouse effect
-Basilica shape: barrel vault arch, rose-ish window, throwback to gothic and classical styles
-Architects began building based on preference and ambience rather than exigency
-So luminous inside that they built around living existing trees
-Pre-assembled sections placed together  Paxton designed portions of construction too (built-in
tracks and carts for welding)
-Lots of classical reference on display within New Tech  separation between ideas of room and
content
Marshall Fields Wholesale Store, Chicago, by Henry Hobson Richardson (of RMH!) 1885-
1930
-Essentially a warehouse: reference to palazzo, but many floors
-Mass-produced steel interior
-No palazzo vibe inside, shifting contents
ELEMENTS OF NEW “SKYSCRAPER”
1) Steel Frame
2) High-speed elevator
3) Lightweight cladding  buildings clothed by something other than their structure
a. Usually glass & terra cotta, usually held by wires
4) Mass production
Monadnock Building, Chicago, by Daniel Burnham & Root, 1892
-Missing most elements of “new skyscraper”
-Among last load-bearing exterior masonry buildings
-Steel frame holding up inside of building, needs insulation to limit temperature changes
-Burnham: designed “lighted grid” city plan for Chicago
-Hugely thick walls at base, toying with thick-thin condition
-Interior: use of light, mass-produced, steel components
Reliance Building, Chicago, by Burnham & Root, 1893
-HAS skyscraper elements!
-Expression of how buildings would be made in “the future”?
-Interior plan: office spaces built with disregard to steel frame
-All walls moveable, columns only support  flexibility of enclosure
-Being on each floor essentially the same experience
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