Class Notes (837,548)
United States (325,103)
BSC 108 (56)
Lecture 1

BSC 108 Lecture 1: Biology Chapter 1 Notes

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Biological Sciences
BSC 108
Christina Yates

Biology Chapter 1 Notes How Do You Define Life? • Anything that is complex and made of chemicals • Something that needs to eat food. • Life cannot be defined. The Scope of Life • Biology is the study of life. • What is life? ➢ It defies a simple, one-sentence definition. • Life is recognized by what living things do. ➢ They have order. ➢ They regulate themselves. o Called homeostasis: “maintaining a steady state” ➢ They grow and develop. ➢ They use energy. ➢ They respond to the environment. ➢ They reproduce. ➢ Populations evolve. Theme 1: The Scope of Life and Emergent Properties • Life consists of a vertical hierarchy ➢ Molecules  Biosphere • Novel properties emerge at each step due to the… ➢ Arrangements ➢ Interactions ➢ ….of the components • Emerging properties are difficult to predict when you look at the properties at the lower levels of the hierarchy. Example of an Emergent Property • Photosynthesis • Put all the molecules required for photosynthesis in a test tube ➢ Expose to light • Photosynthesis will not occur • The specific orientation of the molecules is missing. Theme 2: Organisms Exchange Matter and Energy Within Ecosystems • Every organism interacts with its environment ➢ Both are affected. o Ex. Plants use CO2 to make food. o All 02 in the atmosphere comes from photosynthesis. ➢ Nutrients are recycled ➢ Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers o Energy exists as heat Theme 3: Cells Are An Organism’s Basic Unit • Cells are the lowest level of organization that can perform all the activities of life. • All cells… ➢ Are enclosed by a membrane. ➢ Use DNA as the recipe for the process of life. ➢ 2 kinds of cells: o Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Theme 4: The Continuity of Life is Based on the Information in DNA • Chromosomes contain most of a cell’s genetic material in the form of DNA • DNA is the substance of genes • Genes are the units of inheritance that transmits from parents to offspring. Theme 5: Diversity is the Hallmark of Life and Diverse Forms of Life Fit Their Functions • There are three main groups of life – called domains ➢ Eukarya ➢ Bacteria ➢ Archae Living Organisms Can Be Classified • Eukaryote: organisms with a true nucleus ➢ Animalia ➢ Plantae ➢ Fungi ➢ Protista ➢ Most are unicellular but some of them are multicellular organisms, it is a very diverse group consisting of algae, kelp, protozoa, slime molds • The structure and the function of the diverse components of life are related Theme 6: Evolution • Heritable changes in populations over generatins • Biology’s core theme ➢ The scientific explanation for both o The unity of life o The diversity of life Science • The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know” • Its is both: ➢ A way of knowing ➢ A body of knowledge Scientists use two main forms of inquiry 1. Discovery science ➢ Describes natural structures and processes 2. Hypothesis based science ➢ Observations lead to questions ➢ Questions lead to hypotheses o Tentative answers to a well framed questions ▪ Should be specific ▪ Usually “if, then” statements o Tested by observation or experimentation ➢ Failure to falsify a hypothesis does not “prove” it o Ex. you replace your flashlight bulb o It now works o Supports the hypothesis that your bulb was burnt out, o But does not prove it ▪ Perhaps the first bulb was inserted incorrectly Scientific Method • Cholera Outbreak in 1954, London ➢ Did not know that caused cholera ➢ Did not know how cholera spread ➢ Cholera was/is a killer Scientific Method: Observation • Dr. John Snow observed that most cases of cholera were located near a water pump on Broadway Street • Cholera affected the digestive tract causing severe diarrhea • Residents who drank from the pump contracted cholera • Visitors who drank from the pump contracted cholera • People who drank beer (not water) did not get cholera Scientific Method: Hypothesis • A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for an observation • What would be an acceptable hypothesis for the observations made by Dr. Snow? Scientific Method: Experiment • Design an experiment appropriate to test Dr. snow’s hypothesis. Scientific Method: Results • What was the result of Dr. Snow’s testing? Scientific Method: Conclusions • What conclusion did Dr. Snow make concerning the results of his experiment? Cholera • Now….. it is known that ➢ Cholera is caused by a bacteria that lives in feces ➢ The bacteria is spread through unsafe sanitary conditions – water ➢ Deaths are due to severe dehyd
More Less

Related notes for BSC 108

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.