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Lecture 1

BSC 108 Lecture 1: Biology Chapter 1 Notes
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BSC 108
Professor
Christina Yates
Semester
Fall

Description
Biology Chapter 1 Notes How Do You Define Life? • Anything that is complex and made of chemicals • Something that needs to eat food. • Life cannot be defined. The Scope of Life • Biology is the study of life. • What is life? ➢ It defies a simple, one-sentence definition. • Life is recognized by what living things do. ➢ They have order. ➢ They regulate themselves. o Called homeostasis: “maintaining a steady state” ➢ They grow and develop. ➢ They use energy. ➢ They respond to the environment. ➢ They reproduce. ➢ Populations evolve. Theme 1: The Scope of Life and Emergent Properties • Life consists of a vertical hierarchy ➢ Molecules  Biosphere • Novel properties emerge at each step due to the… ➢ Arrangements ➢ Interactions ➢ ….of the components • Emerging properties are difficult to predict when you look at the properties at the lower levels of the hierarchy. Example of an Emergent Property • Photosynthesis • Put all the molecules required for photosynthesis in a test tube ➢ Expose to light • Photosynthesis will not occur • The specific orientation of the molecules is missing. Theme 2: Organisms Exchange Matter and Energy Within Ecosystems • Every organism interacts with its environment ➢ Both are affected. o Ex. Plants use CO2 to make food. o All 02 in the atmosphere comes from photosynthesis. ➢ Nutrients are recycled ➢ Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers o Energy exists as heat Theme 3: Cells Are An Organism’s Basic Unit • Cells are the lowest level of organization that can perform all the activities of life. • All cells… ➢ Are enclosed by a membrane. ➢ Use DNA as the recipe for the process of life. ➢ 2 kinds of cells: o Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Theme 4: The Continuity of Life is Based on the Information in DNA • Chromosomes contain most of a cell’s genetic material in the form of DNA • DNA is the substance of genes • Genes are the units of inheritance that transmits from parents to offspring. Theme 5: Diversity is the Hallmark of Life and Diverse Forms of Life Fit Their Functions • There are three main groups of life – called domains ➢ Eukarya ➢ Bacteria ➢ Archae Living Organisms Can Be Classified • Eukaryote: organisms with a true nucleus ➢ Animalia ➢ Plantae ➢ Fungi ➢ Protista ➢ Most are unicellular but some of them are multicellular organisms, it is a very diverse group consisting of algae, kelp, protozoa, slime molds • The structure and the function of the diverse components of life are related Theme 6: Evolution • Heritable changes in populations over generatins • Biology’s core theme ➢ The scientific explanation for both o The unity of life o The diversity of life Science • The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know” • Its is both: ➢ A way of knowing ➢ A body of knowledge Scientists use two main forms of inquiry 1. Discovery science ➢ Describes natural structures and processes 2. Hypothesis based science ➢ Observations lead to questions ➢ Questions lead to hypotheses o Tentative answers to a well framed questions ▪ Should be specific ▪ Usually “if, then” statements o Tested by observation or experimentation ➢ Failure to falsify a hypothesis does not “prove” it o Ex. you replace your flashlight bulb o It now works o Supports the hypothesis that your bulb was burnt out, o But does not prove it ▪ Perhaps the first bulb was inserted incorrectly Scientific Method • Cholera Outbreak in 1954, London ➢ Did not know that caused cholera ➢ Did not know how cholera spread ➢ Cholera was/is a killer Scientific Method: Observation • Dr. John Snow observed that most cases of cholera were located near a water pump on Broadway Street • Cholera affected the digestive tract causing severe diarrhea • Residents who drank from the pump contracted cholera • Visitors who drank from the pump contracted cholera • People who drank beer (not water) did not get cholera Scientific Method: Hypothesis • A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for an observation • What would be an acceptable hypothesis for the observations made by Dr. Snow? Scientific Method: Experiment • Design an experiment appropriate to test Dr. snow’s hypothesis. Scientific Method: Results • What was the result of Dr. Snow’s testing? Scientific Method: Conclusions • What conclusion did Dr. Snow make concerning the results of his experiment? Cholera • Now….. it is known that ➢ Cholera is caused by a bacteria that lives in feces ➢ The bacteria is spread through unsafe sanitary conditions – water ➢ Deaths are due to severe dehyd
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