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Lecture 28

BSC 315 Lecture 28: 19

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Biological Sciences
BSC 315
Edwin Stephenson

19. Genes in Populations Population Genetic Terms Population: a group of breeding individuals Population genetics: allele frequencies in populations and mechanisms of change over time Evolution: change in allele frequency within a population over time Calculating Allele Frequencies A static view of allele frequency: the HardyWeinberg equation Imagine gene with alleles A and a o 36 have genotype aa (recessive phenotype). What are the frequencies of genotype AA and Aa? The HardyWeinberg equation: p + 2pq + q =1 2 o P is the frequency of allele A and q is the frequency of allele a. o P + q = 1 o P is the frequency of AA homozygotes 2 o Q is the frequency of aa homozygotes o 2pq is the frequency of the Aa heterozygotes 2 If aa = q = 0.36, then q = 0.6 Since p + q = 1, p = 0.4 Using this info: o AA = p = (0.4) = 0.16 o Aa = 2pq = 2 x (0.4 x 0.6) = 0.48 If one genotypic frequency is known, all others can be calculated (assuming the population is in equilibrium) HardyWeinberg Equilibrium HardyWeinberg equilibrium: the population is stable and allele frequencies do not change over time. If so, allele frequencies can be calculated using the HW equation. Assumptions:
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