CTD 215 Lecture 4: Textiles Chapter 4 Notes

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Department
Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
Course Code
CTD 215
Professor
Dr.Thompson

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Textiles Chapter 4 Notes Natural Cellulosic Fibers Natural Cellulosic Fibers • Classified by portion of the plant from which they are removed. ➢ Seed fibers: cotton, coir (coconut), kapok, milkweed ➢ Bast fibers: flax, hemp, bamboo, jute, ramie, kenaf, hibiscus ➢ Leaf fibers: abaca, pina, sisal, henequen ➢ Other: Spanish moss, cedar bark, rush, sea grass, maize, palm fiber • Cellulose: Glucose – percentage depends on specific fiber; orientation, and length varies by fiber. Properties Common to all Cellulosic Fibers • Absorbent • Good heat conductor • Heat resistant • Low resiliency • Lacks loft • Good electrical conductor • Heavy fibers • Damaged by mineral acids, resists alkalis • Resistant to some insects; damaged by other insects, mold and mildew • Flammable • Moderate sunlight resistance: it will fade but other fabrics will fade faster Cotton • Cellulosic fiber • Seed-hair fiber, each fiber is a single cell growing from the seed in the “boll”. Length fineness depends upon genetic type. • Cotton is the most important fiber in textile/apparel industries. • Major “Sunbelt” crop in U.S. due to the warm climate and rain. ➢ America Upland cotton grown in: Texas, California, Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, North Caroline, Arizona, Tennessee, Alabama, Missouri, South Carolina ➢ Extra Long Staple cotton grown in: California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico Varies of Cotton • American Upland: short and medium staple cotton 7/8 – 1 ¼ inches • Sea Island: Fine, long staple cotton grown in West Indies. 1 ½ – 2 ½ inches • Egyptian: extra long staple cotton, can be grown in Egypt. • Pima: extra long staple domestic cotton grown in the Southwest United States. • Supima: trademark of the Supima Association of America, a group of growers in the southwestern part of the United States. Cross section of Cotton Fiber • Fiber is round when it is growing, but collapses when it dried. • There is a hollow center, called the lumen, which carries water to feed the growing tip of the seed hair. • When it dries, the fiber becomes more bean shaped. • Looks similar to a lima bean Cotton • Parts: cuticle, wax-like film ➢ Primary cell wall: outer skin ➢ Secondary cell wall ➢ Lumen: central canal ➢ Convolutions: ribbon-like twists, cohesive • Fineness: varies with maturity and type • Color: creamy white, natural brown, green, etc. Shape of longitudinal cotton fiber • Looks like a twisted ribbon • Twist along the length are called “convolutions” ➢ There are 200-300 convulsions per inch along the fiber ➢ Convolutions contribute to cohesive fibers ➢ Cohesiveness is the ability of fibers to adhere to one another when twisted to form yarn. Categorized • Staple length • Grad: color of fibers and the absence of dirt, leaf matter, seed particles, tangles, mote or dead fiber, 39 grades ➢ Mote does not absorb dyes, causes defects in fabric • Character: other fiber aspects, maturity, smoothness, uniformity, fineness, strength, convolutions. • What processing needs to happen to produce a good white fabric for commercial use? ➢ Picking machinery, bleaching, etc. Molecular Structure of Cellulose • 99% glucose, high degree of polymerizati
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