CTD 215 Lecture 10: Textiles Chapter 10 Yarn Spinning & Compound, Fancy

5 Pages

Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
Course Code
CTD 215

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Yarn Spinning & Compound, Fancy (Yarn 2) Combine Staple Fibers Into Yarns Spinning Systems • Spinning systems: produce a yarn based on fiber characteristics of fiber ➢ Length ➢ Cohesiveness ➢ Surface Contour • Ring Spinning: standard by which all spun yarns are rated Cotton System • Staple less than 2.5 inches • Opening picker: trash and dirt removed and fibers separated. Blend fibers. A “LAP” is formed: flat, fairly uniform layer of fibers. • Carding • Blending can take place here. Layer pulled into “SLIVER” • Combing: this is an optional step. Only used in making certain cotton yarns. Fibers made more parallel. Short fibers removed. Smoother, superior yarns result. • Drawing: several card slivers combined for uniformity. Fibers made more parallel. • Redrawing • Roving: Twisting • Silver attenuated (drawn out to finer diameter) and twisted Combed/Carded Yarns • Yarns made with the combing steps included are called combed yarns for cottons and worsted yarn for wool and wool blends. • Combed yarns are of higher quality, and are more expensive than carded yarns. • Combing is not necessary for manufactured fibers like polyester, rayon, or lyocell because with manufactured fibers you can cut to the desired staple length. Compare Carded and Combed Yarns • Carded ➢ Fiber length: Short staple ➢ Yarn: less regular in size and appearance. Medium to low twist. More protruding ends. Bulkier, softer, fuzzier. More fibers present. ➢ Fabric: May become baggy in areas of stress. Fabrics vary from soft to firm. Blankets always carded. Wide range of uses. Less expensive • Combed ➢ Fiber length: long staple ➢ Yarn: more regular in size and appearance. Medium to high twist. Fewer protruding ends. Parallel fibers, finer count. Longer wearing, stronger. Fewer fibers present. ➢ Fabric: Smoother surface, lighter weight. Do not sag. Take and hold press. Fabrics range from sheers to suitings. More expensive. Combed/Carded Yarns • In a combed polyester/cotton blend yarn, only the cotton portion needs to be combed. • Combing is necessary for the production of high-count (fine) cotton yarns, like those used in pin point oxford cloth, but is not necessary for low-count cotton yarns, like those used in denim. Spinning • Single yarns, either combed or carded, may be combined with twisting two or more together, to produce plied yarns. • The ply twist is usually opposite the yarn twist. Inserting Yarn Twist • Ring or conventional: series of operations • Open end rotor: • Friction spinning: Combines rotor and air techniques; more even yarns; freer of lint, and loftier, but weaker. Alternate Spun Yarn Processes • Air jet: similar to rotor, but twist formed by moving air; rougher and less elastic yarns than rotor spun yarns. • Direct: • Compact: Variation of ring spinning that condenses the roving before final twist insertion; smoother and stronger yarn. • Vortex: Twist develops as fibers swirl around spindle’ eliminates shorter fibers. • Twistless: • Self-twist: inexpensive way to ply 2 yarns of different twist (1S & 1Z) direction. • Ring spinning: any staple fibers < 2.5” Newer Spinning Processes • Two more modern spinning processes have been increasing in popularity, because the produce yarn at a faster, more economical rate: ➢ Open-end spinning ➢ Air-jet spinning Long Staple Spinning Systems • Two spinning systems exist for the spinning of the long staple (2” to 10”) fibers into yarn. • Any fiber type can be used, provided the staple length fits in the range. Worsted System • Fibers 2-10” long • Machinery is different, but process is similar to combed cotton production. Fibers are highly parallelized prior to twisting into yarn. • They are stronger and firmer than woolen syst
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