Yarn Spinning & Compound, Fancy (Yarn 2)
Combine Staple Fibers Into Yarns
• Spinning systems: produce a yarn based on fiber characteristics of fiber
➢ Surface Contour
• Ring Spinning: standard by which all spun yarns are rated
• Staple less than 2.5 inches
• Opening picker: trash and dirt removed and fibers separated. Blend fibers. A
“LAP” is formed: flat, fairly uniform layer of fibers.
• Blending can take place here. Layer pulled into “SLIVER”
• Combing: this is an optional step. Only used in making certain cotton yarns.
Fibers made more parallel. Short fibers removed. Smoother, superior yarns
• Drawing: several card slivers combined for uniformity. Fibers made more
• Roving: Twisting
• Silver attenuated (drawn out to finer diameter) and twisted
• Yarns made with the combing steps included are called combed yarns for
cottons and worsted yarn for wool and wool blends.
• Combed yarns are of higher quality, and are more expensive than carded
• Combing is not necessary for manufactured fibers like polyester, rayon, or
lyocell because with manufactured fibers you can cut to the desired staple
Compare Carded and Combed Yarns
➢ Fiber length: Short staple
➢ Yarn: less regular in size and appearance. Medium to low twist. More
protruding ends. Bulkier, softer, fuzzier. More fibers present.
➢ Fabric: May become baggy in areas of stress. Fabrics vary from soft to
firm. Blankets always carded. Wide range of uses. Less expensive
➢ Fiber length: long staple ➢ Yarn: more regular in size and appearance. Medium to high twist. Fewer
protruding ends. Parallel fibers, finer count. Longer wearing, stronger.
Fewer fibers present.
➢ Fabric: Smoother surface, lighter weight. Do not sag. Take and hold press.
Fabrics range from sheers to suitings. More expensive.
• In a combed polyester/cotton blend yarn, only the cotton portion needs to
• Combing is necessary for the production of high-count (fine) cotton yarns,
like those used in pin point oxford cloth, but is not necessary for low-count
cotton yarns, like those used in denim.
• Single yarns, either combed or carded, may be combined with twisting two or
more together, to produce plied yarns.
• The ply twist is usually opposite the yarn twist.
Inserting Yarn Twist
• Ring or conventional: series of operations
• Open end rotor:
• Friction spinning: Combines rotor and air techniques; more even yarns; freer
of lint, and loftier, but weaker.
Alternate Spun Yarn Processes
• Air jet: similar to rotor, but twist formed by moving air; rougher and less
elastic yarns than rotor spun yarns.
• Compact: Variation of ring spinning that condenses the roving before final
twist insertion; smoother and stronger yarn.
• Vortex: Twist develops as fibers swirl around spindle’ eliminates shorter
• Self-twist: inexpensive way to ply 2 yarns of different twist (1S & 1Z)
• Ring spinning: any staple fibers < 2.5”
Newer Spinning Processes
• Two more modern spinning processes have been increasing in popularity,
because the produce yarn at a faster, more economical rate:
➢ Open-end spinning
➢ Air-jet spinning Long Staple Spinning Systems
• Two spinning systems exist for the spinning of the long staple (2” to 10”)
fibers into yarn.
• Any fiber type can be used, provided the staple length fits in the range.
• Fibers 2-10” long
• Machinery is different, but process is similar to combed cotton production.
Fibers are highly parallelized prior to twisting into yarn.
• They are stronger and firmer than woolen syst