CTD 231 Lecture 5: CTD 231 Chapter 5 Notes

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Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
CTD 231

CTD 231 Chapter 5 Notes Color Management Color Management • Color management – process of controlling outcome of color from initial concept (chip, swatch, yarn, or sample) to final production output in a way acceptable to the consumer • Color concept determined by either the trend or design department • Matched to color standards from a color specification system which identifies colors that can be achieved on various fabrics required for the group • Color Specialist approves lab dips in-house to assure that lab dips match color standard and other fabrics used within the group • Dyers and finishers – dye sample must match color standard; ensure production yardage consistency • Quality assurance – color fastness requirements ➢ Colors must not bleed, fade, or change under normal conditions of use and care • Variation must be managed through color sorting • Color consistency is imperative; customer is mobile and may buy one piece in-store, another online • Different colorways may shrink differently during processing Seasonal Color Palettes • Color palette selection critical to meeting profit objectives ➢ Too many colors become too costly to produce ➢ Too few don’t attract customers • Depending on the collection being developed, color palettes may vary • Colors selected for a palette group should share common attributes so they coordinate • Monochromatic – several colors of the same hue • Analogous – adjacent colors on color wheel • Complementary – colors opposite one another on the color wheel • Color temperature is also considered Relating Color Palettes to Target Markets • Age and Life Stage • Fashion Level • Skin Tone • Ethnicity • Geographic Location • End Use Managing the Color Story • Color groups developed around specific theme, named, and used as a marketing tool • Multi-brand product developers manage up to 400 different seasonal color palettes Color Science • Color – visual perception of certain wavelengths of light by reting of the eye • Nanometer – one millionth of a millimeter, used to measure light waves • The human eye: ➢ Sees wavelengths in a range of 400 nanometers (deep blue) to about 700 nanometers (deep red) ➢ Distinguishes about 10 million variations of color • Not all colors can be reproduced with available dyes and inks or on all available materials Color and Light • Colors may appear different under different types of light • Variety of lighting environments a challenge of color matching • Color constancy – color perceived to be the same regardless of light source • Color inconsistency/flair – single color reads differently under various light sources (related to hue, rather than color recipe) • Metamerism – the perceived change in color between a pair of samples matching under one light source but not under another source Color and Pigment • Pigment – the substance that imparts color to another substance; color perceived as some wavelengths of light are absorbed and others are reflected Color Attributes • Munsell Color System – describes and identifies color and color relationships (most widely used) Hue • Distinguishes one color family from another • Chromatic colors have a hue • Achromatic colors of black, white, and grey have no hue • Hue and color are not synonymous ➢ Hue has one attribute ➢ Color has three attributes: hue, value, chroma Value • Value – distinguishes light colors from dark ➢ Tint – light color (pastels) o Base color + black ➢ Shade – color mixed with black to decrease value and darken hue (navy) o Base color + white • Color’s perceived value depends on percentage of light reflected from surface • Lightest color – white reflects most of light; absolute black reflects no light; gray absorbs and reflects some light • Munsell gray scale – ten value steps, with black at zero Chroma (Intensity) • Chroma – color’s saturation, or degree of departure from the neutral of the same value • Determined by the amount of pigment in color • Hues with 100% intensity are fully saturated with pigment Color Temperature • Used to describe a color’s apparent warmth or coolness in relation to another color • Not considered the true attribute of color, but universal human perception that hues appear to be wither warm or cool • Warm colors: yellow, orange, red • Cool colors: green, blue, violet • Temperature colors (intermediate): red-violet, etc. • Designers use to evoke image (cool-sea green) Creating and Mixing Colors • Complicated because colors depend on medium from which they are created • Primary colors – minimum number of hues that can be mixed to make greatest number of other colors • Secondary (intermediate) colors – two primary colors mixed together Additive Color-Mixing System • How colored light is mixed • Red, green, and blue or blue-violet primaries • Yellow, magenta, and cyan secondaries (CMY) • Mixing all three additive primaries = white • Creates greatest range of colors Subtractive Color-Mixing System • How pigments are mixed ➢ Paints, inks, dyes, and other color media all absorb certain wavelengths of light, which enable an object to absorb some light waves and reflect back others ➢ The more pigments blended, the more light absorbed and the less light reflected (thus, subtractive) ➢ Simple subtractive – used for mixing thin films ➢ Complex subtractive – used for mixing thick films ➢ Relative system; pigment proportions must be adjusted to achieve perceived, balanced mix Combining Color-Mixing Systems • Not possible to create every color with either the additive or subtract mixing systems • Chroma defines the color range attainable in any particular medium (paint, fabric, p
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