CTD 261 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Melt Spinning, Natural Fiber, Nylon 66

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Manufactured Fibers (Chapter 6)
Any fiber derived by a process of manufacture from a substance that at any point is not
a fiber
Differences in Manufactured Fibers
Appearance and hand not enough
Chemistry is where this is a difference
Generic names are used
Direct end-uses of fibers and fashions
Fiber Manufacturing
Converting material into fiber form
Called spinning
Starting material is a polymer
Either supplied by nature or manufactured from petrochemicals
Polymer is made into a viscous fluid
Either by application of heat (melting), or by use of a solvent from the material
(dissolving)
The spinning solution is referred to as dope
Spinning Steps
1. Melting/dissolving, preparing solution
2. Extrusion- through spinneret to form fiber
3. Hardening: cooling/evaporation/precipitation
4. Drawingoptional step
Orientation & crystallinity
Fiber diameter
Extrusion
Viscous fluid is forced through a spinneret, and fiber formation occurs
Spinneret nizzle, each hole forms one fiber
Methods of Manufacturing Fibers
There are three principal types of fiber spinning
1. Melt spinning: molten polymer is forced through the spinneret into air; fiber
forms by freezing (cooling)
2. Dry spinning: polymer solution is forced through the spinneret into warm air or
nitrogen; fiber forms by evaporation of solvent
3. Wet spinning: polymer solution is forced through the spinneret into a bath of
non-solvent; fiber forms by precipitation or coagulation
Spinning
Melt spinning requires high temperatures but is cleaner, and is the preferred process
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