CTD 447 Lecture 9: CTD 447 Chapter 9 Notes
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Department
Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
Course
CTD 447
Professor
Dr.Tong
Semester
Fall

Description
CTD 447 Chapter 9 Notes Rationalization of Global Trade • Four major trading blocs 1. Europe and European Union 2. The Americas and Caribbean 3. Asia and Oceania 4. The Middle East and Africa • Common characteristics ➢ A combination of developed and developing countries ➢ Free trade practices within the area Continents • By size: 1. Asia 2. Africa 3. North America 4. South America 5. Antarctica 6. Europe 7. Australia/Oceania • By population: 1. Asia 2. Africa 3. Europe 4. North America 5. South America 6. Australia/Oceania 7. Antarctica • Numbers of countries: 1. Africa (55) 2. Europe (46) 3. Asia (44) 4. North America (23) 5. Oceania (14) 6. South America (12) 7. Antarctica (0) Europe • Continent size: 9,938,000 sq. km, 3,837,081 sq. miles • Percent of Earth’s land: 6.7% • Population: 729,000,000 (2006) • Description: Europe, the planet’s 6 largest continent includes 46 countries The European Union • Shared values: liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law • Largest economic body in the world • Worlds most successful model for advancing peace and democracy • A unique institution – member states voluntarily cede national sovereignty in many areas to carry out common policies and governance • Not a super-state to replace existing states, nor just an organization for international cooperation • World’s most open market for goods and commodities from developing countries • 27 member states • 490 million: combined population of EU Member States • 7% of world’s population • 30% of global GDP • 55% of combines worldwide Official Development Assistance • Candidate Countries: ➢ Croatia ➢ Former Yugoslav ➢ Republic of Macedonia ➢ Turkey • Purposes of EU 1. Expand cooperation regarding trade, social issues, foreign policy, security, defense, and judicial issues 2. Implement a single currency (Euro) for EU members 3. Create a homogenous trade area • 1993: EU-12: France, Italy, UK, Spain, and Western Germany • 1995: EU-15: Austria, Finland, Sweden • 2001: implemented the euro • 2004: EU-15: 10 developing countries (e.g. Poland, Hungary, and Latvia) • 2007: EU-27: Bulgaria, and Romania • Member states: ➢ Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Romania • Candidate Countries ➢ Turkey, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia, Former Yugoslav EU – Per Capital GDP • Indicator of per capital of GDP (poor  rich) 1. Least developed countries: $20,000 • None of the EU countries is among the least developed or newly developing countries ➢ All of EU-15 countries are in the developed country category ➢ Other 12 EU countries are in the developing country category Labor Cost • Total Labor Cost = Labor cost + social cost Role in Textiles and Apparel • Western Europe ➢ Provides a huge consumer base • Eastern Europe ➢ Provides a huge, low-cost production base Role of Western Europe • Five countries dominate the European textile and apparel complex ➢ Germany, Italy, Great Britain, France, and Spain 1. Fashion leaders and the centers of merchandising, creative design, technical design, and wholesale marketing 2. Participate in high value and niche markets 3. Improve competitiveness through vertical and horizontal integration Role of Eastern Europe • Eastern Europe ➢ Use production textiles and apparel as a means of industrialization ➢ The fast-growing markets for commodity clothing products such as Russia and Turkey ➢ GDP growth rate: 7% Western Europe International Trade in Textiles & Apparel • The EU was collectively considered the largest trader of textiles and apparel in the world • EU-15 Clothing imports come form: 1. Mediterranean Basin Countries: Turkey is top supplier form region 2. Preference to select developing countries: Africa, Caribbean, Pacific region 3. Special trade agreements: Select Central/Eastern European countries 4. Asia: China: EU phased out textile quota restrictions on China on Jan. 1, 2008 United Kingdom • Contributes heavily in high-end designer and brand recognition • Known for fine tailoring menswear and RTW clothing • Dominant retailers include: ➢ Marks & Spencer ➢ Mass retailer, Tesco ➢ Specialty retailer Arcadia Germany • Europe’s largest economy and one of the largest populations • Highly re
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