CTD 461 Lecture 12: CTD 461 Chapter 12 Notes

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University of Alabama
Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
CTD 461

CTD 461 Chapter 12 Notes Evaluating Products Product Evaluation • Incorporates material interactions • Process-material interactions (stitching, fusing) • User-product interactions (fit, function) • Environment-product interactions (cleaning, use) Material Interactions • Describes the way in which materials are combined in a product act and react when their performance is influenced by the presence of another material • Ensure materials compatible • Not interact to create dissatisfaction • Assessed by combining materials and testing • No change in performance • Decrease measurably in performance • Increase measurably in performance Components • Made of two or more pieces that will be incorporated into product • Ex: cuff-fashion fabric; interlining fabric, thread, fusible adhesive • Standard test methods: performance of seams, fused, laminated, or bonded fabrics Fabric Combinations • Adhesives: used to fuse, laminate, bond fabrics together (fashion and interlining) • Strength of adhesive bond important • AATCC 136 Bond Strength of Bonded and Laminated Fabrics and ASTM 2724 Bonded, Fused, and Laminated Apparel Fabrics • Bond strength: tensile force oz/in or g/cm need to separate component layers • Dimensional stability: mark, wash, compare dimensions • Dimension change percentage = ➢ (average org. distance – average final distance) *100 average org. distance • Appearance: evaluated for problems result of use or care ➢ Blister (bulge): delamination and shrinkage of under layer ➢ Crack mark (sharp break): two layers not draped in the same way ➢ Pucker (wrinkles): difference in shrinkage of layers ➢ Delamination: separation of layers of fabric Thread • Tailorability: ease with which materials sew together (difference in body or handing cause problems • Thread: significant effect on appearance of seams, decorative stitching, and embroidery • Seam strength: maximum resistance to rupture at the juncture formed by stitching together two or more planar materials, ASTM D 1683 • Seam slippage: partial or complete loss of seam integrity manifested by yarn slippage parallel or adjacent to the stitch line • Seam failure: point at which an external force • Ruptures the sewing thread • Causes excessive yarn slippage adjacent to the stitch line • Causes any combination of these unacceptable conditions • Recorded in lbf • Seam damage: reduction in seam efficiency caused by a change in the physical construction of one or more components • Seam pucker: caused by distortion of sewn fabric during seam construction or later Closures • Different fasteners cause different stresses • Ex: buttons, few yarns of fabric take stress • Focus on fabric’s resistance to distortion cause by closure weigh, fabric rupture or yarn slippage as a result of pulling force • Modified tensile test used Trims and Other Materials • Evaluate if elongation of trim and fabric are the same • Evaluate distortion because of weight of trim • Evaluate puckering caused by application of trim Process-Material Interactions • Describes the effects a production process has on the performance of individual materials and the finished product • Stitching and fusing: major production processes used to make products • Production engineer: best procedures, equipment, and settings to meet specs and max productivity • Quality assurance engineer: evaluates production engineer choices in terms of product performance and the effect on quality and serviceability Sewability • The ability of a thread to combine with another material in stitch and seam formation so that production and performance problems do not occur • Examines interactions between thread, other materials, sewing machine, and needle • Assesses material and process interactions; tailorability materials’ reactions to the process of sewing Sewability Key Terms • Formability: maximum compressibility before the onset of buckling • Buckling: the material bends back on itself and forms an accidental fold, tuck, or pleat • Compressibility: ability of fabric to be compressed or overfed without buckling • Shear stress: yarn distortion if force is applied at a particular angle to warp/filling • Extensibility: material’s ability to stretch slightly • Hygral expansion: increase in fabric dimensions due to an increase in RH, cause extensibility Damage Due To Sewing • Needle damage: partial or complete severance of yarns, deflection of yarns at the stitch line, or fusing of fibers caused by a needle passing through a material during sewing • Grin: occurs in stressed seams when the individual stitches can be seen • Shiners: are created at seams when the needle snags a yarn d pulls it tighter than the other yarns in the surrounding area • Color contrast: created when needle damage alters the appearance of printed or dyed materials Needle Damage • NF% = 100(Ny/Ty) ➢ NF% defined as needle damage index due to fusing, severance, or deflection ➢ Ny is the number of yarns damaged in direction evaluated ➢ Ty is the total number of yarns in the direction evaluated • ND% = 100(Ny/Pn) ➢ ND% is defined as needle damage index due to fusing, severance, or deflection ➢ Ny is the number of yarns damaged in direction evaluated ➢ Pn is the total number of needle penetrations Fusing/Other Problems • Bleed through: the adhesive appears on the technical face of the fashion fabric; appears as a discoloration • Ridging: a line on the face of fashion fabric so that the point at which the interlining ends can be seen quite clearly when the product is used. It can occur because heavier interlining is used with a light weight fashion material Finishing • Check for thread and seam finishing • Wet processing: product dyeing, abrasive washes, wrinkle-resistant finishes • Check for colorfastness – use, environment • Check for color matching • Check for company standards of appearance and strength • Check for correct curing of wrinkle-resistant finishes User-Product Interactions • Look at product to ensure that no process or material has created problems that will detract from its salability and performance • Will the product produce the desired result when used by the consumer • Look at design, function, appearance, size, fit, construction, packaging Design: User Product-Interactions • Product visually compared to prototype for design criteria • • Zone definitions come into play Function: User-Product Interactions • Does the product perform as expected • Wear/service testing: process of evaluating finished products to determine if they meet product performance criteria • • Mobility • Dexterity • • Ab
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