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Lecture 4

GEO 101 Lecture 4: Geology Chapter 3 Notes Lecture

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Geological Sciences
GEO 101
William Lambert

Geology Chapter 3 Notes: Minerals • Cave of the Crystals (gypsum) in Chihuahua, Mexico • Element- a material that is made up of only one type of atom • Atom- smallest piece of an element that has the properties of the element (Hydrogen has no neutrons) ➢ Proton- positive charge ➢ Electron- negative charge ➢ Neutron- no charge • Atomic number- the number of protons in an atom. An element is defined by the number of protons • Atomic weight- the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom ➢ Electrons have very little mass • Ion- an atom with an unequal number of protons to electrons 1. Cation- positively charged ion (has more protons that electrons) 2. Anion- negatively charged ion (has more electrons that protons) • Most elements on the periodic table are metals • Chemical bond- an attractive force that holds two or more atoms together. Strength of bond varies (like glue) 1. Ionic- metal atoms give electrons to nonmetal atoms resulting in oppositely charged atoms (ions) that bond/stick together ➢ Fairly weak bond in solids 2. Covalent- nonmetal atoms that share electrons are hence bonded together ➢ Strong bonds 3. Metallic- electrons form “sea” around positively charged atomic nuclei, electrons move freely ➢ Malleable (hammered into different shape without breaking or cracking), good conductivity (electricity), ductile (thin wire), strong bond 4. Van Der Waals (force)- the relatively weak attractive forces that act on neutral atoms and molecules that arise because of the electric polarization induced in each of the particles by presence of the other particles • Molecule- two or more atoms bonded together, can be the same or different • Compound- two or more different elements bonded together ➢ All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds • Atoms within minerals are held together by chemical bonds • What is a mineral? ➢ Over 4,900 minerals ➢ Naturally occurring solid ➢ Formed by geologic processes ➢ Crystalline structure ➢ Can be described with a chemical formula ➢ Definable chemical composition ➢ Most inorganic (31 minerals are related to organic processes) • Internal crystal structure dictates shape of unobstructed crystal • Polymorph- minerals with the same chemical composition but different crystal structure (ex. Diamond and graphite, calcite and aragonite) • Minerals Crystals form in 5 ways… 1. Solidification of a melt (water freezing-ice) 2. Precipitation from a solution (salt [halite] crystals forming when salt water evaporates) 3. Solid-s
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