GEO 104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Rock Cycle, Surface Runoff, James Hutton

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Published on 23 Aug 2016
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*Hazard'City'Map'Reading'-Wed'August'31st,'before'midnight*
*Quiz'#1'(ch1+2)'Closes'Friday,'Sept'2nd
*Catastrophes'vs.'Disasters'-Friday'Sept'9th'INCLASS*'
Natural'Hazards'are'repetitive
Maps,'historical'accounts,'climate'and'weather'data'
§
Rock'types,'faults,'folds,'soil'comparison'
§
History'of'an'area'gives'clues'to'potential'hazards'
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Geologic'conditions'govern'the'type,'location,'and'intensity'of'natural'processes'
All'processes'are'called'Geologic'Cycles'
Tectonic'cycle
§
Rock'Cycle
§
Hydrological'cycle'
§
Biochemical'cycle'
§
Subcycles:
Geologic'Cycles'
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Refers'to'large-scale'processes'that'deform'earths'crust'and'produce'landforms
Driven'by'forces'within'earth
Location'of'mountain'belts'and'volcanos
§
Distribution'of'most'earthquakes'
§
involves'the'creation,'destructions,'and'movement'of'tectonic'plates'explains:
Tectonic'
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Rocks'are'aggregates'of'one'or'more'minerals'
Different'rocks'are'formed'by'different'processes'
Recylcling'abd'transformation'of'earth'materials'
Energy'comes'from'tectonic'cycle
§
Water'for'erosion'and'weathering'from'hydrologic'cycle'
§
Minerals'from'biogeochemical'cycles
§
Rock'cycle'is'linked'to'all'other'cycles
Rock'cycle
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Geo$104
Monday,'August'22,'2016
11:00'AM
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'
Melting,'cooling,'
crystalization'
Heat'pressure'chemically'
active'fluid'
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Minerals'from'biogeochemical'cycles
§
Igneous'Rocks'
Metamorphic'Rocks'
Sedimentary'Rocks'
Solar'energy'drives'movement'of'water'between'atmosphere'and'oceans'and'contin
Processes'include:'evaporation,'precipitation,'surface'runoff,'and'subsurface'flow
Residence'time'is'estimated'average'time'that'a'drop'of'water'spends'in'any'
compartment'
§
Only'a'small'amount'of'water'is'active'at'any'given'time'
§
Water'is'stored'in'compartments'such'as'oceans,'atmosphere,'rivers,'stream,'etc
Hydrological'Cycle'
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Combines'the'three'previous'cycles'
Transfer'of'chemical' elements'through'a'series'of'reservoirs'
Carbon,'Nitrogen,'Phosphorus'
§
Many'important'chemical'elements'are'not'well'understood'
Biogeochemical'Cycle
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*HW'assignments'
Map'reading'exercise'on'the'hazard'city'website'
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Blog'is'posted'under'the'discussions'tab'on'GEO'104'eLearning'site
Only'first'post'on'a'hazard'will'be'graded'for'informative'content'and'english
Everyone'can'comment'on'posted'blogs'for'bonus'points'
Have'all'semester'to'post'a'blog'
Geologic'Hazards'in'the'News'
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Science'is'a'body'of'knowledge'that'has'resulted'from'investigations'and'expe
§
Formulation'of'scientific'question'to'explain'observations'
Hypothesis'is'a'possible'answer'to'a'question'and'is'testable'
Data'is'taken'to'test'the'hypothesis'
Hypothesis'substantiated'by'data'becomes'a'Theory'
Theory'shown'never'to'be'violated'becomes'a'law'(can'NEVER'be'violate
Scientific'investigation'has'improved'our'understanding'of'natural'disast
Scientific'method
§
"The'present'is'the'key'to'the'past"
Processes'that'are'happening'today'have'happened'in'the'past
Uniformatarianism'('James'Hutton,'1785'paper)
§
Human'interaction'has'an'effect'on'geologic'
§
Hazards'are'predictable'from'scientific'evaluation'
Fundamental'concepts'for'understanding'natural'processes'as'hazards'
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