HY 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 95: Neoliberalism, Sayyid Qutb, Separatism

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I.Violence beyond Bounds: War and Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century
A. Terrorist organizations
1. 1960s: Organized terrorist tactics as a part of political conflict
a. Middle East, Europe, and Latin America
b. Specific goals
i. Ethnic separatism
ii. Establishment of revolutionary governments
2. 1980s and 1990s: A new brand of terrorist organization
. Apocalyptic groups called for decisive, world-ending conflict
a. Eliminating enemies and martyrdom
b. Origins
. Groups from social dislocations of the postwar boom
i. Radical religion
c. Divorced themselves from local crises
B. Al-Qaeda
1. Radical, Islamist umbrella organization
2. Created by leaders of the foreign mujahidin who fought against the Soviets in Afghanistan
. Osama bin Laden (b. 1957): official leader and financial supporter
a. Ayman al-Zawahri (b. 1951): linked directly to Sayyid Qutb
3. Organized broad networks of self-contained terrorist cells around the world
4. Goals
. Did not seek territory or to change governments of specific states
a. To destroy Israel and America and European and other non-Islamic systems of
government
b. To create an Islamic community held together by faith alone
5. Terrorist attacks on American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998
6. September 11, 2001
. Hijacked airliners hit the Pentagon, leveled the World Trade Center in New York
a. Fourth plane crashed in Pennsylvania
b. A new brand of terror
. Deeply indebted to globalization
i. Extreme, opportunistic violence of marginal groups
7. United States' response
. Attacked Afghanistan, central haven for al-Qaeda
a. Routed Taliban forces
b. Did not capture bin Laden
c. Rebuilding Afghanistan
8. Persistent fears
. Chemical and biological weapons
a. Weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
9. New arms race
. Israel
a. India and Pakistan
10. America-led invasion of Iraq (2003)
. Hussein deposed and captured in December 2003
a. No WMD found
b. United States inherited complex reconstruction of broken state
11. North Korea
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Document Summary

I. violence beyond bounds: war and terrorism in the twenty-first century: terrorist organizations. 1960s: organized terrorist tactics as a part of political conflict: middle east, europe, and latin america, specific goals. 1980s and 1990s: a new brand of terrorist organization. Apocalyptic groups called for decisive, world-ending conflict: eliminating enemies and martyrdom, origins. Groups from social dislocations of the postwar boom. Radical religion: divorced themselves from local crises, al-qaeda, radical, islamist umbrella organization, created by leaders of the foreign mujahidin who fought against the soviets in afghanistan. 1957): official leader and financial supporter: ayman al-zawahri (b. 1951): linked directly to sayyid qutb: organized broad networks of self-contained terrorist cells around the world, goals. Hijacked airliners hit the pentagon, leveled the world trade center in new york: fourth plane crashed in pennsylvania, a new brand of terror. Extreme, opportunistic violence of marginal groups: united states" response.

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