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Lecture 12

HY 106 Lecture 12: Honors Western Civ Class 12 Nationalism and Repression

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HY 106

Nationalism and Repression, 1815-1848 A. Crackdowns, 1815-1848 1. Prologue: Vienna, 1815 2. Russia: Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Nationalism a. “Constantine and Constitution” 3. German nationalism in context 4. France: from the Bourbons to “the Pear” 5. The British exception: peaceful reform B. The revolutions of 1848 1. “Springtime of the Peoples” 2. The diverging goals of the revolution C. Napoleon III and the Second French Empire 1. From President to Emperor 2. Aggressive foreign policy (to distract from) 3. Repression at home Key Terms • Klemens von Metternich • Nicholas I • Carlsbad Decrees • Louis-Philippe • Peterloo Massacre • Lord John Russell • Reform Bill of 1832 • Frankfurt Parliament • The People’s Charter • Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte • Crimean War • Nationalism is a revolutionary idea. • Vienna in 1815. All the powers in Europe met to….. led my Klemens von Metternich. He is of immense conservatism. In Vienna there is a two way split of the 5 great powers: Russia, Britain, France, Prussia, Austria. They, Austria, Russia, want to wipe everything back to 1789. Prussia and Britain are less interested in putting back to 1789 as they are not having one person controlling the continent. No one power too strong to overtake everyone. This winds up with a tie. France broke the tie. Metternich does not want to share his power – political or economic. This results in the powers agreeing to preserve a certain balance of power, repress national movements that might upset the balance of power, and working with peace and civility. • Russia had a czar Alexander I who was raised by his grandmother Catherine the Great who began his reign with conservatism. By the end he had essentially become an oppressive figure. When he died the people tried to get his brother on the thrown. They meet in St Petersburg chanting “Constantine and constitution”. Constantine is alexander’s brother. Instead it ends with Alexander’s son on the thrown. • Nicolas I became czar instead. He is a repressive czar. His guiding principles can be summed up in autocracy, orthodoxy, and nationalism. Autocracy – Russia cannot have a division of power, it is simply too big. He says they have to have a strong central power. Orthodoxy – the czar was chosen by God. Divine right. Summed up by don’t question the czar. Nationalism – means the opposite of what it means in the west. Russian nationalism is therefore stick with your Russian traditions of serfs and lords and a roughly agricultural society. Serfdom does not end until the 1860s in Russia. During this time they try to ward off any reform of power. • German nationalism in the beginning of the 19 century is started by Napoleon. At German universities (only for the really bright or really well connected, uniformly male), patriotic clubs start to rise. The young men get together, they drink and they fight (sword fighting) and talk about how to create a Germany. Why shouldn’t all German speakers unite into one nation? Austria is terrified of this (52 languages spoken in Austria). In 1819 there is a play written in German that has a nationalistic theory and brings ideas of
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