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Lecture 10

HY 106 Lecture 10: Honors Western Civ Class 10 The Industrial Revolution

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HY 106

The Industrial Revolution (with a brief bit of Napoleon) • Napoleon in fifteen minutes ➢ Domestic reforms ➢ Imperial overstretch • The mechanization of production: why Britain? ➢ An agricultural revolution ➢ Transport ➢ Lack of internal barriers ➢ Strong financial system ➢ Relative peace • Converging technologies ➢ Cotton, steam, iron, and rails • The consequence of industrialization ➢ The rise of the factory ➢ Urbanization and its discontents ➢ The rise of the middle class ➢ Gender and the separate spheres ➢ Toward a consumer society Key Terms • Code Napoleon (Code Civil) • Continental system • Waterloo • Richard Arkwright • Eli Whitney • Cotton gin • James Watt • George Stephenson • David Ricardo • Frederick Engels • The Condition of the Working Class in England (1845) • Luddites • Combination Acts • Grand National Consolidated Trades Union • Robert Owen • Napoleon in 1799 overthrows the directory with the assistance of some other members of the directory. He calls himself the first consol. Political and legal reforms that consolidated the gains of the revolution. Most important reform was the Code Napoleon. When he took power he sat down a group of lawyers to take the constitution and write down a new concise set of laws based on the ideals of the revolution and the Third Estate. He took part in these meetings. He wanted the average Frenchman to understand. Everyone is equal in theory. He brings the tax roles from the provinces to Paris, makes peace with the Catholic Church – peace with the Pope. In 1804 he took the title of Emperor – he crowned himself. In 1805 he embarked in a series of wars that brought France to rule vast amounts of land. 2 events lead us to the rest of his empire. 1) Battle of Trafalgar: Napoleon had plans to invade England but was defeated at Trafalgar so he was unable to invade that year. 2) Battle at Austerlitz: he won this battle. In 1806 he defeated Prussia. In 1807 he met on the River Neman between Russia and France – Russia agreed to join the Continental System. As soon as the war broke out Britain blockaded. The continental system is was Napoleon’s answer to this blockade. It was stopping other countries from trading with Britain. In 1808 Spain went against France. His unwillingness to treat anyone else as an ally – everyone is a pawn – that means they are waiting for an opportunity to overthrow him. He is suffering in Spain from imperial overstretch. Aleksander the Great says he’s not going to take part in the Continental System so he invades Russia; this is when he realizes not to go against Russia from the west. He goes into Russia and takes Moscow but its empty and doesn’t have anyone important there. Russia never asks for peace terms. Napoleon takes 600,000 men into Russia and leaves with 60,000. He then takes to Elba. Later decides he is tired of ruling Elba, and returns to France. Duke of Wellington stops Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon is sent back into exile. • The British economy went under a massive transformation. Machines began to produce consumer goods and this is one of the more fundamental shifts in life, in work. Britain and the northern US are the only places this is occurring in the world. Why Britain? 1) Britain had an agriculture surplus. Extra wealth was invested. The elite means that they have more money then they know what to do with. The normal people now need jobs that do not have to do with agriculture. 2) Britain had a good system of water transport. The most effective way of transporting objects is through water because they don’t have to feed people, feed animals, etc. low transport costs encouraged people to produce more goods and reach a broader market. Now there is money floating around the system and there is great incentive. The industrial revolution knots together a national market. Britain also has no internal or external trade barriers unlike France. 4) There was a strong financial system in place in Britain. 3) The Seven Years’ war was not fought in Britain so they had relative peace within their country. • Changes in the way cotton was processed. In the 1740s you start to see
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