# PY 211 Lecture 10: Chapter 8

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1 Mar 2017
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Department
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Chapter 8
Hypothesis Testing
Inferential Statistics
ļ· Descriptive vs. inferential
o Descriptive ā describes characteristics (CT, Var) of a set of scores (table, graph)
o Inferential ā procedures used for generalizing observations within sample to
population from which it came
ļ· Hypotheses and Testing
o Hypothesis
ļ§ Statements about the value for a population parameter
ļ§ Statements that can be tested using the research method
o Hypothesis testing (significance testing)
ļ§ Method for testing a hypothesis about a population parameter
ļ§ Determine the likelihood that a sample statistic would be selected, given
the population parameter
ļ· Hypothesis
o Null
ļ§ Treatment did not work
ļ§ Sample looks like original distribution (high probability)
o Alternative
ļ§ Treatment worked
ļ§ Sample does not look like original distribution (very low probability)
ļ· Examples
o Water filter
ļ§ Null: sample looks like (polluted) population (high probability)
ļ§ Alternative: sample looks nothing like the population (low probability)
ļ· Much cleaner
ļ· Filter works
o Pain therapy (meditation)
ļ§ Null: saīµple looks like īhigh paiī¶ī populatioī¶ ī¾high proīaīilityīæ
ļ§ Alterī¶atiīe: saīµple looks ī¶othiī¶g like the īhigh paiī¶ī populatioī¶ ī¾loī
probability)
ļ· Feel less pain
ļ· Therapy helps
o Learning, sleeping & memory
ļ§ Null: saīµple looks just like īī¶o sleepī populatioī¶ ī¾high proīaīilityīæ
ļ§ Alterī¶atiīe: saīµple looks ī¶othiī¶g like the īī¶o sleepī populatioī¶ ī¾loī
probability)
ļ· Remember more
ļ· Sleeping helps
Steps in Hypothesis Testing
ļ· Research design
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## Document Summary

Descriptive vs. inferential: descriptive describes characteristics (ct, var) of a set of scores (table, graph) Inferential procedures used for generalizing observations within sample to population from which it came. Statements about the value for a population parameter. Statements that can be tested using the research method: hypothesis testing (significance testing) Method for testing a hypothesis about a population parameter. Determine the likelihood that a sample statistic would be selected, given the population parameter. Sample looks like original distribution (high probability: alternative. Sample does not look like original distribution (very low probability) Null: sample looks like (polluted) population (high probability) Alternative: sample looks nothing like the population (low probability) Null: sa(cid:373)ple looks like (cid:862)high pai(cid:374)(cid:863) populatio(cid:374) (cid:894)high pro(cid:271)a(cid:271)ility(cid:895) Alter(cid:374)ati(cid:448)e: sa(cid:373)ple looks (cid:374)othi(cid:374)g like the (cid:862)high pai(cid:374)(cid:863) populatio(cid:374) (cid:894)lo(cid:449) probability) Therapy helps: learning, sleeping & memory. Null: sa(cid:373)ple looks just like (cid:862)(cid:374)o sleep(cid:863) populatio(cid:374) (cid:894)high pro(cid:271)a(cid:271)ility(cid:895) Alter(cid:374)ati(cid:448)e: sa(cid:373)ple looks (cid:374)othi(cid:374)g like the (cid:862)(cid:374)o sleep(cid:863) populatio(cid:374) (cid:894)lo(cid:449) probability)

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