PY 211 Lecture 10: Chapter 8

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Chapter 8
Hypothesis Testing
Inferential Statistics
Descriptive vs. inferential
o Descriptive describes characteristics (CT, Var) of a set of scores (table, graph)
o Inferential procedures used for generalizing observations within sample to
population from which it came
Hypotheses and Testing
o Hypothesis
Statements about the value for a population parameter
Statements that can be tested using the research method
o Hypothesis testing (significance testing)
Method for testing a hypothesis about a population parameter
Determine the likelihood that a sample statistic would be selected, given
the population parameter
Hypothesis
o Null
Treatment did not work
Sample looks like original distribution (high probability)
o Alternative
Treatment worked
Sample does not look like original distribution (very low probability)
Examples
o Water filter
Null: sample looks like (polluted) population (high probability)
Alternative: sample looks nothing like the population (low probability)
Much cleaner
Filter works
o Pain therapy (meditation)
Null: saple looks like high pai populatio high proaility
Alteratie: saple looks othig like the high pai populatio lo
probability)
Feel less pain
Therapy helps
o Learning, sleeping & memory
Null: saple looks just like o sleep populatio high proaility
Alteratie: saple looks othig like the o sleep populatio lo
probability)
Remember more
Sleeping helps
Steps in Hypothesis Testing
Research design
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Document Summary

Descriptive vs. inferential: descriptive describes characteristics (ct, var) of a set of scores (table, graph) Inferential procedures used for generalizing observations within sample to population from which it came. Statements about the value for a population parameter. Statements that can be tested using the research method: hypothesis testing (significance testing) Method for testing a hypothesis about a population parameter. Determine the likelihood that a sample statistic would be selected, given the population parameter. Sample looks like original distribution (high probability: alternative. Sample does not look like original distribution (very low probability) Null: sample looks like (polluted) population (high probability) Alternative: sample looks nothing like the population (low probability) Null: sa(cid:373)ple looks like (cid:862)high pai(cid:374)(cid:863) populatio(cid:374) (cid:894)high pro(cid:271)a(cid:271)ility(cid:895) Alter(cid:374)ati(cid:448)e: sa(cid:373)ple looks (cid:374)othi(cid:374)g like the (cid:862)high pai(cid:374)(cid:863) populatio(cid:374) (cid:894)lo(cid:449) probability) Therapy helps: learning, sleeping & memory. Null: sa(cid:373)ple looks just like (cid:862)(cid:374)o sleep(cid:863) populatio(cid:374) (cid:894)high pro(cid:271)a(cid:271)ility(cid:895) Alter(cid:374)ati(cid:448)e: sa(cid:373)ple looks (cid:374)othi(cid:374)g like the (cid:862)(cid:374)o sleep(cid:863) populatio(cid:374) (cid:894)lo(cid:449) probability)

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