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Lecture 11

SOC 101 Lecture 11: SOC 101 Ch 11

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SOC 101

Gender and Sexuality Sex: Biological distinction between females and males Gender: Socially constructed cultural expectations associated with women and men Gender expression: Communication of a person’s gender identity to others, through behavior, clothing, hairstyle and other means. Transgender: Individuals who identify with a gender different from the one associated with their sex Transsexuals: People who have sex reassignment surgery to change their physical appearance Gender role: Set of social expectations regarding behavior and attitudes based on a person’s sex. Appearance, activities, behaviors, emotions, aspirations Doing gender: Creating gender through interactions in particular social settings. Gender is constantly being created and altered through this. Gender stratification: Systematic and unequal distribution of power and resources in society between women and men Patriarchy: Social system dominated by men Matriarchy: Social system dominated by women Women earn only about 80 percent of what men do. Gender discrimination. 35% of women and 27% of men had a bachelor’s degree or higher –the gap is growing. th Mid 20 century, 1/3 women were employed outside the home. Today, about 60% of women (and 70% of men) are in the paid labor force. Due to birth control, need additional income, etc. Women and men have different work patterns, which contributes to the wage gap. Reflects the enduring power of gender norms that assign women the primary responsibility for raising children. Women are more likely than men to use family leave, work part time or leave the workforce altogether for their children. ¼ mothers leaves the workforce and 17% only work part time. Only 1/100 fathers leave the workforce and 2% work part time. Glass ceiling: Often invisible barrier created by individual and institutional sexism that prevents qualified women from advancing to high levels of leadership and management Second shift: Phenomenon of employed women still having primary responsibility for housework and children Political Power Women accounted for just 19.1% of members of all national legislative bodies in 2010. In 1995, the UN adopted a goal of 30% representation for women in each country’s legislative body. By 2011, only 26 countries had met the goal, often through quotas.
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