Gender and Sexuality
Sex: Biological distinction between females and males
Gender: Socially constructed cultural expectations associated with women and men
Gender expression: Communication of a person’s gender identity to others,
through behavior, clothing, hairstyle and other means.
Transgender: Individuals who identify with a gender different from the one
associated with their sex
Transsexuals: People who have sex reassignment surgery to change their physical
Gender role: Set of social expectations regarding behavior and attitudes based on a
person’s sex. Appearance, activities, behaviors, emotions, aspirations
Doing gender: Creating gender through interactions in particular social settings.
Gender is constantly being created and altered through this.
Gender stratification: Systematic and unequal distribution of power and resources
in society between women and men
Patriarchy: Social system dominated by men
Matriarchy: Social system dominated by women
Women earn only about 80 percent of what men do. Gender discrimination.
35% of women and 27% of men had a bachelor’s degree or higher –the gap is
Mid 20 century, 1/3 women were employed outside the home. Today, about 60%
of women (and 70% of men) are in the paid labor force. Due to birth control, need
additional income, etc.
Women and men have different work patterns, which contributes to the wage gap.
Reflects the enduring power of gender norms that assign women the primary
responsibility for raising children. Women are more likely than men to use family
leave, work part time or leave the workforce altogether for their children. ¼
mothers leaves the workforce and 17% only work part time. Only 1/100 fathers
leave the workforce and 2% work part time.
Glass ceiling: Often invisible barrier created by individual and institutional sexism
that prevents qualified women from advancing to high levels of leadership and
Second shift: Phenomenon of employed women still having primary responsibility
for housework and children
Women accounted for just 19.1% of members of all national legislative bodies in
2010. In 1995, the UN adopted a goal of 30% representation for women in each
country’s legislative body. By 2011, only 26 countries had met the goal, often