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APY 107
Niki Bertrand

Primate Behavior Natural selection Adaptive radiation Window to human evolution By studying them we may learn more about how humans behave Study Primates Captive study – study them in captivity (zoo) Semi-free-ranging – an open area that is slightly enclosed and this gives us a natural behavior but slightly controlled, can control environment Field study – go out to the species’ natural habitat Sociality Rank and Kin can affect behavior Jane Goudall – one of the first people that spent time with their study species Expected to spend at least a year for students now These studies can include recording or non-invasive devices (does not bother them) Proximate – immediate causes for behavior, include hormonal and physiological reasons for animals to react Behavior has deeper tendencies Ultimate – evolutionary level; can explore fitness effects of this behavior; influenced by male dominance and coalition, female receptivity, Can help understand the evolutionary social system Monkeys mate from these deeper evolved strategies that can enhance the monkey’s odd of reproduction Behavior can be adaptive Behavior is subject to the forces of evolution Females are sought after sex Females are the choosey sex and they are the resources that males want to monopolize and map themselves around for redistribution Reproductive Asymmetry Philopatry- individuals remain in the group they were born in Female Philopatry – where males immigrate out Females form strong bonds and strong incentive to cooperate Male Philopatry – females immigrate out Males will have bonds with each other Maybe from relatedness Bonds help form coalitions with females later on for mating Important for challenging dominance Bonobos – females have strong bonds - Important Thought that the bonds help them prevent from male harassment Female Chimpanzees – do not have strong bonds with each other Prevent inbreeding and have gene flow Robert Sapulsky – Sociality – fluid thing; important and still happens Monkeys chased out nasty male monkeys and nasty male monkeys didn’t share food and died out and now females only accept nice male monkeys Male Reproductive Strategies Dominance For males there different ways to immigrate out of the group Setteled by dominance hierarchies Several ways a male can try to get a rank If he is challenging, come in and try to defeat alpha male. Challenger Species (crested blackmacat, resis macat) Another way is finding a young nice female and try to get himself into the group and he’ll be at the bottom Important for dominance hierarchies exist is to decrease aggression because its dangerous and they can die Dominance is fluid and don’t necessarily stay stable Being alpha does not equate to reproductive success Female Reproductive Strategies Dominance Sexual Receptivity Signals Can be behavioral, anatomical, physiological Willingness to mate Attractivity Paired with behavior and phermonal stuff Fertile during a restrictive period Females can only conceieve during this time and therefore, only mate during this time Paternity confusion – chimpanzees Swollen butts not timed exactly with ovulation Which makes male less likely to kill their children Males kill children that aren’t theres The Paradox of Sociality – fundamental sociality adaptations Access to mates – males and females goals are the same – enhance reproductive success Strategies are different Aggression is likely during mating season Food Avoiding predators – difficult to obtain evidence of predation Large groups – more eyes Can mob – decrease chance of getting eaten Large groups can be more conspicuous to predators Types of Nonhuman Primate Species Solitary Monogamy Polygyny One male – need to have support of female Multimale – males don’t want to have as many females all to himself If he has too many males, he has to keep an eye on each one. Better option is he lets males into group but retains social dominance and majority of mating access Males do
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