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APY 107
Niki Bertrand

The Primates Mammals are divided into three groups Metatheria – offspring are born in embryonic state and wiggle their way down to a pouch and attach themselves to a nipple and grow that way til theyre self sufficient kangaroo, possums Prototheria – mammals that lay eggs and once theyre offspring hatches, they nurse them by nipple platypus, kidna Eutheria – have zygote and gets implanted in uterus and grows in a fetal state and then live birth primates The Primate Radiation 300 recognized species ; 400 including sub species Primate –certain traits: grasping hands, large brains, have a higher degree of learned behavior as opposed to innate (instinctual) behavior Anatomical Traits: (*** KNOW ALL TRAITS AND WHY***) Generalized body plan – means that its not a specialized body plan Seal’s flipper – specialized body plan because it needs to live in water generalized body plan - easier to take advantage of varying environment  increase fitness and ability to survive Terrestrial primates – walk more along ground Grasping Hands – exception to rule: a genus of new world monkeys Marmasits & tamrins – have nails and claws Extreme tactile pads Forward-facing eyes highly developed visual field depth perception in our visual field if carnivorous, allows to catch prey faster can only eat insects still carnivorous considered hunter , predator Matthew Cartmill – visual predation hypothesis – having forward facing eyes and grasping hands were the key advantages for catching preys earliest primates – insectivores Generalized teeth By studying teeth, we can learn about species diet and mating system teeth are more adaptable to a certain diet primate teeth - quite generalized generalized ability gives advantage to utilize more things in environment depending on canines between males and females, if we see males have big canines we can conclude there is some sort of competition between access to females Petrosal Bulla Tiny bone and protects inner ear all primates have this enclosed orbits protect eye Reduced proganthism The snout area has gone from long to short ring-tailed lemurs do not have the extremely reduced prognathism Life History Traits – from conception til death Single Offspring – exception Tamrins & Margarsits (usually give birth to twins) Long maturation period Large Brains – relative to body size Encephalization – increase in volume in neocortex Neocortex – involved in all the higher cognitive processes see this in the ridges of the brain and fixtures more active neurons due to increase SA Extended Ontogeny – long life spans Life cycle – most primates live in complex social groups so they need an extended period of time to figure out how to navigate the social groups difference with primates – every single life stage is extended from childhood, juvenile, to adult sociality Behavioral Traits Activity Patterns Diurnal – active daylight possess colored vision – see fruits and leaves – help limited olfactory senses (reduced prognathism) – for most primates reduced prognathism – so enhanced visual communication Nocturnal- active night Slowlaruses only venomous primate in existence lick a gland on elbow and activate gland and have poison Sociality –characterisitic living in groups Living in groups most fundamental adaptation that characterizes most primates by being social it provides a ready access to mates, find food, and avoid predators some primates that still have prognathism and use scent markers does not make them less evolved remember: natural selection will favor different traits to help them survive The Strepsirhines (Bush Babies) possess a dental comb Madagascar separated The Lemurs Madagascar separated Lemuridae the ones we have left today are likely the ones that were too allusive and quick to bother hunting AYE – big ears – can chew through cinder blocks The Lorises Tropical Africa and Asia Galagos – bush babies in Africa many more species than we actually thought there was resemble some primate ancestors of ours communicate by vocalization and by olfaction nocturnal spend nights feeding on fruits and insects The Haplorhines The Tarsiers – people do not know where to classify them; nocturnal insectivores New World Monkeys infraorder platyrrhini small body size – biggest is 25 lbs three premolar teeth – all other haplorhines have 2 arboreal – spends most of time in tails prehensile tail – can be used as a hand – use it as a fifth hand marmasit and tamarin (have claws instead of nails and tend to give birth to twins) have noses face up Old World Monkeys infraorder catarrhini- includes old world monkeys and apes and humans have nostrils face down found in Africa and small part of middle east much wider variety in environemnt than new world monkeys greater body size and greater sexual dimorphism (when one sex is much larger than other) ischial callosities – thicken callus on the rump make sitting more comfortable bilophodant molars – double ridged molar teeth help bite thru fibrous plants estrus (in some) – periods of sexual receptivity pink butts – swelling colobines multi-chambered stomach can process much more fibrous food and lower quality food and process plants htat have a higher toxicity level cercopithecines share a presence of cheek pouches (around necks) sexual dimorphism is more pronounced than in any other suborders of overall monkeys The hominoids infraorder catarrhini apes hominoidae hominidae hylobatidae ecephalization brachiation social complexity rotating shoulders lack tails monkeys have tails apes don’t all extinct forms of hominoids instead and humans Apes Gibbons – Hylobates 14 Species Asia/ Indonesia White-Hand Gibbons can come in three different colors Inhabit canopies of the forest Brachiators – long arms and long fingers and a reduced thumb Re
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