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COM 225 (34)

Perceiving Others.docx

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COM 225
Bonnie Mc Cracken

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Perceiving Others Friday, February 14, 2014 9:15 AM Perception •Perception- the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting info from our senses o Selecting- focusing attention on what is salient o Organizing- structuring info into a coherent pattern inside your mind • Punctuation- organizing the info into chronological order based on how you experienced the events (Ex. Overanalyzing, such as the fist bump recap, or thinking ahead in a conversation/how to get there) • Interpretation- assigning meaning to that info o We recall familiar info that's relevant to the current interaction and use that to make sense of what we're hearing and seeing •Auto-motives- outside of our awareness (Ex. Driving becomes automatic, doesn't take much cognitively, routines) o Implications • Maximizing efficiency • Perceptual readiness to attend to, judge, and act accordingly • Goals related to our sense of self, professional commitments, or relationships become habitual •Schemata- cognitive structures we use to make sense of the world o Contain info defining the characteristics and relationship of concepts o Pick up salient characteristics and compare to preexisting mental constructs o Implications: • Social cognitions (stereotypes) affect how we interpret meanings of others' messages • Guide our interactions • Fall into unproductive routines • Content of schemata is product of prior communicative interactions, future interactions can modify •Attributions- explanations for others' comments or behaviors o 2 types: • Personality attribution- person's communication or behavior is cause of internal character or personality • Situational attribution- person's communication or behavior cause of external factors o Attributional biases: • Actor-observer effect- our tendency to make external attributions regarding our own behavior • Self-serving bias- our tendency to take credit for success by making internal attributions •Fundamental attribution error- the tendency to attribute others' behaviors solely on internal causes o Most prevalent of attributional biases o Implications: • Blame negativity on personality flaws or bad character • Underestimate the significance of environment Uncertainty • Uncertainty reduction theory- our desire to reduce the anxiety experienced by gathering info • Uncertainty management theory- our ability to effectively manage our anxiety and uncertainty What influences our perception? • 3 powerful influences are: o Culture o Gender o Personality Personality • Personality- an individual's characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and acting, based on the traits (motives and impulses) that he or she possess o Big 5 (OCEAN) • Openness • Conscientiousness • Extraversion • Agreeableness • Neuroticism Perceiving others • Gestalt- a general sense of a person as a whole that's either positive or negative, based on info in our schemata o Rapidly formed first impression with little mental or communicative effort (Ex. Bridesmaids) • Interpersonal impressions- mental pictures of who people are and how we feel about them o Profound impact on our communication and relationship choices o 1988 courtroom study on attractiveness • Positivity bias- likely having po
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