Chapter 1 - Summary
1. Anatomy is the study of the structures of the body.
2. Systemic anatomy is the study of the body by organ systems. Regional anatomy is the
study of the body by areas.
3. Surface anatomy uses superficial structures to locate deeper structures, and anatomical
imaging is a noninvasive method for examining deep structures.
Physiology is the study of the processes and functions of the body.
1.3 Structural and Functional Organization of the Human Body
1. The human body can be organized into six levels: chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ
system, and organism.
2. The eleven organ systems are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, lymphatic,
respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive
systems (see figure 1.3).
1.4 Characteristics of Life
The characteristics of life are organization, metabolism, responsiveness, growth,
development, and reproduction.
1. Homeostasis is the condition in which body functions, body fluids, and other factors of
the internal environment are maintained within a range of values suitable to support life.
2. Negative-feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
3. Positive-feedback mechanisms make deviations from normal even greater. Although a
few positive-feedback mechanisms normally exist in the body, most positive-feedback
mechanisms are harmful.
1.6 Terminology and the Body Plan
1. A human standing erect with the face directed forward, the arms hanging to the sides,
and the palms facing forward is in the anatomical position.
2. A person lying face upward is supine and face downward is prone.
Directional terms always refer to the anatomical position, regardless of the body's actual position (see table 1.1).
Body Parts and Regions
1. The body can be divided into the head, neck, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs.
2. The abdomen can be divided superficially into four quadrants or nine regions, which are
useful for locating internal organs or describing the location of a pain.
1. A sagittal plane divides the body into left and right parts, a transverse plane divides the
body into superior and inferior parts, and a frontal plane divides the body into anterior
and posterior parts.
2. A longitudinal section divides an organ along its long axis, a transverse section cuts an
organ at a right angle to the long axis, and an oblique section cuts across the long axis
at an angle other than a right angle.
1. The thoracic cavity is bounded by the ribs and the diaphragm. The mediastinum divides
the thoracic cavity into two parts.
2. The abdominal cavity is bounded by the diaphragm and the abdominal muscles.
3. The pelvic cavity is surrounded by the pelvic bones.