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Lecture 3

GEO 446LEC Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Ilex Aquifolium, Altitudinal Zonation, Clinton Hart Merriam


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEO 446LEC
Professor
Adam Wilson
Lecture
3

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Global Change impacts on species
Species Range Shifts
How do species shift their ranges in response to global change?
What are ecological and social-ecological consequences of species range shifts?
As the global climate changes, human well-being, ecosystem function, and even climate itself
are increasingly affected by the shifting geography of life.
Isotherms and zonation of species distribution
Alexander von Humboldt was the first to report the altitudinal zonation of vegetation after his
expedition in Latin America
Humboldt’s plant zonation along the altitudinal gradient of the Chimborazo
Alexander von Humboldt & Aimé Bonpland at the foot of the Chimborazo
Alexander von Humboldt
(1769-1859)
Isotherms and zonation of species distribution
Alexander von Humboldt also related the altitudinal zonation of vegetation to the circumpolar
belts or zones suggesting isotherms as natural boundaries to species distribution
von Humboldt & Bonpland (1807); maps from Woodbridge (1823) based on von Humboldt‘s
isotherms
Fundamental laws of temperature control?
Animals and plants are distributed in circumpolar belts or zones, the boundaries of which
follow lines of equal temperature rather than parallels of latitude
Merriam (1894)
Clinton Hart Merriam
(1855-1942)
Isotherms and zonation of species distribution
Alexander von Humboldt also related the altitudinal zonation of vegetation to the circumpolar
belts or zones suggesting isotherms as natural boundaries to species distribution
von Humboldt & Bonpland (1807); maps from Woodbridge (1823) based on von Humboldt‘s
isotherms
Northern isotherms and distribution limits
Reproduction of Holly (Ilex aquifolium) coincides very closely to the 0°C-January isocline
Absent
Present
Sterile
Range 1931-1960
Iverson (1944) redrawn in Gaston (2003); Walther (2005)
Ilex aquifolium
Northern isotherms and distribution limits
The northern range limit of the winter range of the eastern phoebe (Sayarnis phoebe)
corresponds very closely to the - 4°C-January isocline in North America
Root (1993); Huggett (2004); photo taken by Brian Sullivan
http://ebird.org/content/ebird/news/patterns-from-ebird-eastern-phoebe
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