PGY 300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Myelin, Axon Hillock, Resting Potential

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PGY 300
Dr. Slaughter
Neurophysiology 2
2/1/17
Neuron
Single nerve cell
Cell body (soma)
Dendrites
Reach out to get signals from outside world, other neurons, glands, muscles
Axon
Extremely long relative to soma
Initial segment (axon hillock) - very sensitive to production of action potential
(brief burst of activity)
Action potential travels down axon
Myelin sheath
Cell wraps around axon
Helps speed up action potential
Synapse
End of neuron
Connects to dendrites of another neuron, gland, muscle
Axon of presynaptic cell synapses dendrite of postsynaptic cell
Electrical signal goes from dendrites → cell body (soma) → axon → synapse → out
Shapes of Neurons
Sensory neurons/afferent neurons going to spinal cord
Pseudounipolar
Axon splits into 2 branches
Motor neurons/efferent neurons that leave spinal cord
Multipolar
Connect to muscles/glands
Glial Cells
Form myelin sheath
PNS
Schwann cells → wraps around axon
CNS
Oligodendrocytes → wraps around several different neurons or several
different myelin units
Astrocytes
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