PSY 101 Lecture 2: Methods of Psychological Research

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Lecture 2 2-1-17
Psychology as a Science
I. What is science?
a. Science refers to making hypotheses and testing them against empirical evidence
II. Hindsight Bias
a. The tede oe oue leared a fat to oie ourself that ou ke it all alog
b. Hypotheses help prevent hindsight bias
III. Methods of Psychological Research
a. How do we go about getting evidence?
b. Naturalistic (Direct) Observation
i. Watch participants in a natural setting
ii. Studies human behavior
iii. Example direct observation (either through video camera or in person) of
whether or not men wash their hands after using the bathroom
c. Survey
i. Can be in person, over the phone, or online
ii. Allos for data o peoples thoughts, feeligs, or attitudes
iii. Limitations
1. People participating in survey may have trouble remember specifics
2. People have a tendency to lie in regards to sensitive topics
iv. People can be unaware of their own biases
1. Some things are true about us that we are not aware of
d. Indirect Observation
i. Best and most succinct way to test thoughts
ii. Look at idiators of a persos thoughts
iii. Infer what an individual is thinking based on their actions
iv. Often involves examining how a manipulation of a situation effects behavior
1. Example Sharon v. Steven class survey
2. Example Names changed on resumes
a. Stereotypical black v. white names
v. Eye Tracking
1. Technology that monitors where your eyes are looking at any given time
2. Proed that readig doest happe i order
3. Shows what your brain/mind is doing when reading words
a. Processes words as whole entities
vi. Response time to stimulus
1. Testing peoples reatio ties a proide iforatio ito their
a. Example if you told someone to click a keyboard whenever
they see a word flash on the screen
b. If you already have an idea in your mind, you are more likely to
quickly respond to those words
i. Idea a refer to huger, aiet
vii. Physiological metrics
1. Cardiovascular clues can hint to emotional state
a. Especially forms of arousal (sexual, excited, anxious, etc.)
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