Class Notes (839,394)
United States (325,937)
UGC 112 (103)
Lecture 2

UGC 112 Lecture 2: UGC112unit2

10 Pages

Undergraduate College
Course Code
UGC 112
Boyd Timothy

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The trade in human - the trade in Africa Slavery ● Throughout civilized history ○ From Sumerians (2500BC) to the present ○ Manumission: ​Romans had a freeing mechanism ■ Freed slave becomes member of ​liberti​ ​(freedmen) ● Took the name that used to own you ■ Get job from outside to pay for it - buy freedom ■ Debt off ■ Religious component to free slave ○ Slavery in the Islamic World ■ Could only enslave non-believers ■ Mostly came from the North (Pagan - worship multiple gods) ○ Slavery 1500 - 1800 ■ African Slaves vs. Native people ■ Merchants/African rulers sell slaves ● early middle ages in west , ​5 million​ slaves from desert trading. Portugal in slave trade ● Want slaves, but without the Saharan middlemen ● Spain ​entered world of slave dealing after discovering New World ● No gold/silver/spices in the Caribbean, but riches from Sugar ● Sugar needed manforce Spanish & Portuguese ​burned up local Native American population (died from European disease and workforce) ● Needed lots of cheap workers (preferably with:) ○ Farming experience ○ Some immunity to European and tropical diseases (west Africa has close connection with portuguese) ○ West Africa = source, perhaps ​10,000,000 ​with Africans brought through the middle passage to the Americas to work for sugar West African rulers saw profit from slave trade: ● To sell prisoners of war ● To sell their own people ● In return for trade goods and firearms Slave traders either: ● Used established posts ● Used coasting (traveled along familiar coasts) In time, Purpose - built slave ● Ships - to pack in “​cargo​”货船 Law: ● 1807 - UK outlawed Atlantic Slave trade (banned) - cramp lots of people in tiny space, disease slave throw into ocean, didn’t feed them well, socially isolated (language barrier) ● 1808 - US did the same ● Not allow trade slave through Atlantic from west Africa to America, but there are still slaves ● British navy ship will check on the ship, they will thumb the slave in the ocean to keep the ship (bc ship is more expensive) In time West Africa ruined by 1 - crop economy, what happen whn American begin to ban slavery Ottoman Turkey Previously on World Civ ● C. 600 AD ​Muhammad​ begins to preach a new, ​monotheistic religion​, spread rapidly ● “​Islam​”: ​submission to God ○ Its followers were​ ​Muslims​ those who submit to God ● split among Muslim early on: ○ Sunni​ - who distinguish between the secular and the spiritual ■ Separation between religious leader and political leader ○ Shiites ​- who see the descendants of Muhammad as spiritual and secular leader ● In time, the power of Islam was taken over by other group ○ East - the ​Mongols​ ​(14th century on) ○ Mediterranean - the Turks​ (11th century on) ● In Rome - religion was important, but not a central focus of the military or government ● Islamic empires are as much religious as governmental The Rise of the Ottoman Empire ● The first Turks to assimilate Islam were the ​Seljuk Turks ○ In control of the Asian Minor ○ The way they governed was inherited by the Ottoman ○ King in charge and division of lands into provinces ● empire covered most the modern Middle East, from western Turkey to Iraq and Egypt ● As the empire faded, the part of it ruled by ​Uthman/Osman I​ (1299-1326) began expanding ○ He is one of the leader of the provinces, and decided to form his own, declared independent from Seljuks ● Hence the name ​Ottoman Turks or Ottomans ○ Expanded rapidly ○ was on the ​northern border​ between Byzantine Christians and Turkish Muslim ○ began wars of conquest in Christian Europe, on the other side of the Dardanelles ● Ottoman Expansion ○ Religious Tolerance宽容 for non-muslims ■ western Jews and Christians. ■ A tolerance which Christians did not extend to Jews or Muslims ■ The goal of the Ottoman invasion was conquest, ​not total destruction ■ Local could follow their own religion​, with some conditions ● Swearing loyalty ● Paying taxes ● For Christians in the first few centuries of the empire: submitting their children to a system of military conscription征兵 ○ Devshirme ● Locals in the Balkans weren’t inclined to resist the Ottomans, instead resisted by upper class ● They asked less of them than their feudal Christian overlords ● But the overlords fought back (battle) and were defeated ○ At ​Kosovo​ ​(1389) - west ○ At ​Nikopolis​ (1396) - west means victory city in Greek - ironic ○ The Balkan peninsula gradually turned into European Turkey The Capture of Constantinople (W) ● The process of conquest was completed in 1453 ● Turkish Sultan ​Mehmed II​ (1451 - 1481) directed the ​siege围城 of Constantinople ○ Makes it as his capital ● Over the years, the Turks had been moving closer to the city ● They built fortresses above it, on the Bosphorus(waterway) ● They lengthy siege was a success because of ○ Heavy artillery炮兵, at least one of which was cast at the siege itself ○ larger forces, both naval and land - only ~ 10,000 defenders for miles of walls ● There was dissension纠纷 among European ruler: all were appealed to, none sent help ● With the city’s fall, Mehmet immediately set about rebuilding it to make it HIS Capital ○ Had people gathered from surrounding areas, offering houses and tax breaks (no tax) ○ Had walls rebuilt and new Islamic buildings built ○ Encouraged trade Ottoman Expansion ● By the time Mehmet died in 1481 ○ The capital was ​Istanbul​ (Constantinople) ○ Much of northern Asia Minor was controlled by the Turks ○ Along with the majority of the Balkan peninsula, including Greece ○ Italy was being threatened too - plans to attack the western coast and move inland. But… ○ There was a quarrel争论 over who would succeed Mehmet ○ Bayzeid II vs. Jem ○ Jem is defeated and flees west; he’s held hostage人质 in Europe as a threat civil war ○ Temporarily, this meant the Turks turned east for conquest ● Knocked the Portuguese out of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf ● Backed Spanish Arabs against Christian efforts to drive them out of Spain ● Defeated the Safavids (rulers of a new Persia) ● Began a war of coastal conquest ○ Eventually took the mainland from modern Lebanon to the southern Mediterranean and the Pillars of Hercules ○ Took most of the Greek islands along the way - ​except for Crete (lost of Crete) ● Some setbacks: failure to take ​Vienna​ in 1529, ditto Malta in 1565, naval defeat at Lepanto​ in 1571 ● In general, the unity of the Turkish people, their single army/navy, and their organizational superiority won the day ● The separate nations turkey faced each had their own interests, so they could never develop a unified common structure ● The overseer of many of these conquest was ​Suleiman​, called ​The Magnificent​ (1520 - 1566) ○ conqueror , kicked out Portugese in Red sea/Persian Gulf ○ Help Moors in Spain (Muslim), because the reconquista kick out by spain. ■ Defeats Safavids (Persian empire) Turkish Society ● The base of society was the ​Sultan ○ Timar ​- a system that all land belonged to him, a noble would hold it during his lifetime, but it returned to the sultan at his death ■ no lands to inherit, unlike the European nobility ● All got and military appointments came from the Sultan ● From his court at Istanbul, the empire was ruled in provinces by Sultan-appointed governors ● Below the provinces were sub-provinces with their own officers ● The Ottoman govt, including/especially the Sultan, used slaves to keep a fresh supply of candidates for office available ● Children of the Sultan’s concubines妾 were given important positions within the empire ● the death of a Sultan resulted in an immediate power struggle among his sons ● The losers were blinded and imprisoned, or killed in Harem ○ Don’t know how to rule because they always live with mother in Harem ● The govt also employed the ​Devshirme​, a kind of tax on Christian bodies ○ Got agents swept the provinces every few years and took promising boys & girls ■ The girls went into harems闺房, including the Sultan’s ■ The boys ● Went into the civil services, the navy, and the army ● Became Muslims ● Could receive high o
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