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Lecture 6

ANSC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Gilt-Edged Securities, Weaning, Lactation

Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 101

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ANSC 101 Lecture 6: Swine Industry
- Worldwide production is dominated by China, EU, and the U.S.A
- EU production is driven by Denmark
- The U.S.A imports dramatically more pigs than the rest of the World combined.
- The U.S.A produces over 11.3 million tons and exports over 2.3 million tons of pork per
year. This is over 10% of worldwide production. China = 49% and EU= 21%.
Swine in the U.S.A
- 3.1 million sows in 2013
- The top 4 companies have over ½ of all sows.
- Top 10 has almost 30%.
Swine Terms
-Sows: Mature female pigs that have had a littler of pigs
-Gilts: Female pigs that have not yet had a litter
-Boars: Mature and intact male pigs
-Barrows: Catrated male pigs
-Piglets: Nursing pigs
Phases of Production
-Weaning/ Nursing: Pigs removed from sow (6-25 kg(
-Growing: Up to 70kg
-Finishing: From 70 – to market
Types of Production Systems
-Farrow-to-finish: Breed, farrow, wean, and raise pigs to market weight.
-Farrow: Breed, farrow, wean and sell weaned pigs
-Finisher: Purchases weaned pigs and brings them to market weight.
-Genetic Multiplier: Farrow to finish for replacement gilts, isolated from other
production systems.
Pig Life Cycle
-Gestation: 115 Days (3 months, 3 weeks, and 3 days)
-Farrowing/ Lactation: Litter size: 8-16 pigs. Length of lactation: 14-28 days. Sows need
about 7 days after weaning before rebreeding.
-Weaning: Focus on maintaining health and transitioning to dry feed. Health challenges
to gut and respiratory system are of major concern. Temperature regulation critical, and
complex diets needed to maximize productivity.
-Growing/Finishing: Biosecurity for maintaining health, diets become less complex,
greater focus on diet cost.
Current Issues in Swine Production
- Confinement housing (gestation and farrowing crates, total indoor production)
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