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Lecture 4

ANSC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Castration, Gilt-Edged Securities, Weaning

Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 101
Kasey Moyes

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Introduction to Swine Industry
Holding steady over the last 5 years @ 1.25B pigs per year
Production dominated by China, EU, and the USA
EU production driven by Denmark
USA imports dramatically more pigs than the rest of the world combined
USA produces over 11.3M tons and exports over 2.3M tons of pork per year
High swine production in NC, USA because railways can easily go from there to all of
the northeast metropolitan areas and corn can easily come in from the Midwest for food
Swine terms
Sows mature female pigs that have already had a litter of piglets
Gilts female pigs that have not yet had a litter
Boars mature and intact male pigs
Barrows castrated male pigs
Piglets nursing pigs
Phases of production
Weaning/nursery pigs removed from the sow (6-25kg)
Growing (up to ~70kg)
Finishing (from ~70kg to market)
o Market weight: used to be around 100kg; now at least 130kg
Types of production systems
Farrow-to-finish breed, farrow, wean, and raise pigs to market weight
Farrow breed, farrow, wean and sell weaned pigs
Finisher purchases weaned pigs and brings them to market weight
Genetic multiplier farrow to finish for replacement gilts; isolated from other production
Pig life cycle
Gestation 115 days (3 months, 3 weeks, and 3 days)
o Litter size: 8-16 pigs, >1.3kg = good, <0.8kg = bad
o Length of lactation: 14 , 21 , 28 , or more days?
21 is the typical amount
o Sows need about 7 days after weaning before rebreeding
o Focus on maintaining health and transitioning to dry feed
o Health challenges to gut and respiratory system are of major concern
Complete gut development not until about 40 days old
o Temperature regulation critical no cold pigs
o Complex diets needed to maximize productivity
o Biosecurity for maintaining health
o Diets become less complex, greater focus on diet cost
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