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Lecture 16

ANSC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Killer Toy, Child Labor Laws In The United States, Selenium Deficiency


Department
Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 101
Professor
Kasey Moyes
Lecture
16

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Animals and the Environment
Objectives:
Describe how various species adapt to their environment based on their physiology
Describe how environment quality (e.g. air, water, and soil) are affected by animal
production
Animals and their Environment
Intensive management
o Integrated poultry, confinement swine, indoor pets
o Environmental conditions controlled
Light, temperature, nutrition, movement, disease
Extensive management
o Cattle, sheep, horses, outdoor pets
o Weather and disease
What is the Environment?
Nutrition
Temperature
Humidity
Wind
Precipitation
Altitude
Pollution
Water
Urban Pressure
Soil
Parasites
Soil
Disease
Predation
Poisonous Plants
Sunlight
Adaptability of Animals
Temperature zones in the US
o Changing seasons
o Mammals homeotherms
Poikilotherms
o Thyroid gland
Location?
Thyroxine (T4)
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Increases metabolism
Thermoneutral Zone
Temperature range in effective ambient temperatures where rate and efficiency of
performance is maximized and health is optimal
No or minimal energy expenditure to maintain body heat
Cold Temperatures
What do animals do to increase body temperature?
Increased feed intake
Shivering
Hair, feathers, or fat for insulation
Vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) of the skin
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Increased blood flow
Increase the effective ambient temperature
o Avoid the wind, huddle together
Hot Temperatures
What do animals do to increase body temperature?
Vasodilation (widening of blood vessels)
Sweating
Panting
Mud
Shade
Water consumption 2 fold differences for cattle
Reduced heat stress
Effects of Heat Stress
Performance
o Decreased feed intake
o Decreased milk production or growth rates
Reproduction
o Embryo death
o Sperm abnormalities
Management to Offset Environment
Rations
o Heat
Feed for increased maintenance requirements
Feed higher density diet for decreased intake
Increased water intake
o Cold
Feed for increased maintenance requirements
Assume slight increase in feed intake
Increase energy density of ration
Other Management
Shelters
Shade
Fans
Mist
Sprinklers
Ice bottles
Air conditioning
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