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Lecture 32

ANSC 101 Lecture 32: Lectures 32,33+34 - Issues in animal science

11 Pages
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Department
Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 101
Professor
Kasey Moyes

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Todays Topis
Organic operations
Consumer attitudes and perceptions
Population growth
Food Prices
Environment
rBST
Definition of Organic
A system of farming that mimics natural ecosystems that balance pest and beneficial
organism populations and maintain and replenish fertility of the soil.
USDA regulations: National Organic Program (NOP) guidelines for certification
(http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=OR GANIC_CERTIFICATION)
Organic
Animals must have access to outdoors (eg. pasture, lots)
No antibiotics but can use vaccines
No growth-promoting hormones (eg. Estrogen implants in beef cattle, BST in dairy cows)
Feed, minerals and vitamins must not derive from animal slaughter by-products (eg.
bone meal, protein isolates)
Only non-synthetic ingredients:
o Direct-fed microorganisms (probiotics)
o Enzymes
o Yeasts
Pesticides
Vaccinations
Organic
No genetically modified organisms (GMO)
o Recombinant DNA technologies
o Cell or Nuclear fusion
o Gene insertion
o Bt corn: Bacillus thuringiensis toxin introduced into corn to allow resistance to
insects and pests
Regulations when bringing non-organic animals onto the farm
o Feed organic feeds for period of time (12 mo) prior to harvesting milk, meat and
eggs.
More strict than European standards
Organic Certification
Certification Process
o All feed ingredients must be 100% organic
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
o Farm inspection
o Intense record keeping
o 3 year waiting period
The Five Steps to Organic Certification
Egg Production
Organic
Farm size
Nutrition
Feed efficiency
GHG emissions
Residues
No FDA approved therapeutics
US vs EU standards
Guidelines vs law
Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions
72% consumers say they know little or nothing about how food is grown or raised
o 70% say purchasing influenced by how food is grown or raised
42% say the way food is grown or raised has improved in last 10 years
o 37% say it has gotten worse
86% farmers say consumers know little or nothing about farming
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
o 56% of farmers think consumers have completely inaccurate perceptions
Why Are Consumers Confused?
: % farers….: % farers
o = knowledge gap
Too many choices at the grocery store?
o no GMOs, reduced fat, rBST free, organic, raw milk, antibiotic free, non-
processed
Positive Ads
Negative Ads
Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions: Changing Demographics
Aging population products
o Lower birth rates, higher life expectancy
Emerging middle class acquires new purchasing power
o 230 Million, 2000 -> 1.15 Billion 2050
Urbanization
o More educated, more brand conscious, higher disposable income
o Farers ater alue-added produts
Enriched milk
Drinkable yogurt
Consumer Concerns and Perceptions
Consumers love and respect farmers ut…dot uderstad ad appreiate the oder
industry
Recommended websites:
o http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
o http://www.usda.gov or http://www.fda.gov/
o http://www.nih.gov/
o Higher education = focus on extension
Population Growth: Land Resources and Food Prices
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
Today’s Topics • Organic operations • Consumer attitudes and perceptions • Population growth • Food Prices • Environment • rBST Definition of Organic • A system of farming that mimics natural ecosystems that balance pest and beneficial organism populations and maintain and replenish fertility of the soil. • USDA regulations: National Organic Program (NOP) guidelines for certification (http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=OR GANIC_CERTIFICATION) Organic • Animals must have access to outdoors (eg. pasture, lots) • No antibiotics but can use vaccines • No growth-promoting hormones (eg. Estrogen implants in beef cattle, BST in dairy cows) • Feed, minerals and vitamins must not derive from animal slaughter by-products (eg. bone meal, protein isolates) • Only non-synthetic ingredients: o Direct-fed microorganisms (probiotics) o Enzymes o Yeasts • Pesticides • Vaccinations Organic • No genetically modified organisms (GMO) o Recombinant DNA technologies o Cell or Nuclear fusion o Gene insertion o Bt corn: Bacillus thuringiensis toxin introduced into corn to allow resistance to insects and pests • Regulations when bringing non-organic animals onto the farm o Feed organic feeds for period of time (12 mo) prior to harvesting milk, meat and eggs. • More strict than European standards Organic Certification • Certification Process o All feed ingredients must be 100% organic o Farm inspection o Intense record keeping o 3 year waiting period The Five Steps to Organic Certification Egg Production Organic • Farm size • Nutrition • Feed efficiency • GHG emissions • Residues • No FDA approved therapeutics • US vs EU standards • Guidelines vs law Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions • 72% consumers say they know little or nothing about how food is grown or raised o 70% say purchasing influenced by how food is grown or raised • 42% say the way food is grown or raised has improved in last 10 years o 37% say it has gotten worse • 86% farmers say consumers know little or nothing about farming o 56% of farmers think consumers have completely inaccurate perceptions Why Are Consumers Confused? • 1900: 98% farmers….2011: 2% farmers o = knowledge gap • Too many choices at the grocery store? o no GMOs, reduced fat, rBST free, organic, raw milk, antibiotic free, non- processed • Positive Ads • Negative Ads Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions: Changing Demographics • Aging population products o Lower birth rates, higher life expectancy • Emerging middle class acquires new purchasing power o 230 Million, 2000 -> 1.15 Billion 2050 • Urbanization o More educated, more brand conscious, higher disposable income o Farmers cater ‘value-added products’ ▪ Enriched milk ▪ Drinkable yogurt Consumer Concerns and Perceptions • Consumers love and respect farmers but…don’t understand and appreciate the modern industry • Recommended websites: o http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed o http://www.usda.gov or http://www.fda.gov/ o http://www.nih.gov/ o Higher education = focus on extension Population Growth: Land Resources and Food Prices Food Prices: Egg Prices Egg prices and consumer willingness • EGGS: Consumption unresponsive to price changes o 40% handicap money $$ only 10% change consumption o Low income consumers will be most affected • Few consumers pay high premium o Gov’t regulations o mandates The Environment • CH 4nd CO 2 • Ozone (O 3 • Methane o From manure storage ▪ Methane digester ▪ 25% from manure o From fermentation Not useful US homes: equivalent to 1 gallon propane/d Mason-Dixon Farms • Gettysburg and Fredrick st • 1 AMS • 1 Anaerobic digesters o self-sufficient o 1/8 of CH 4rom urine and manure rBST • Recombinant bovine somatotropin • Improves efficiency o Misuse with poorly managed farms o Need to address problems, not a solution • Most researched product to date • No (increase) GH in milk o (decrease) IGF-1 • Protein hormone not lipid-based • Not-biologically active in humans! o Unlike phytoestrogens (eg soybeans) What is a major disadvantages for producers regarding methane/manure digesters? a) Price b) Inability to recycle nutrients c) Inability to convert nitric oxide to energy used on farm d) All the above Next Lecture: Today’s Topics • Environment • rBST • GMOs • Raw Milk Consumption • Antibiotic Resistance Not useful US homes: equivalent to 1 gallon propane/d Mason-Dixon Farms • Gettysburg and Fredrick • 1 AMS st • 1 Anaerobic digesters • self-sufficient • 1/8 of CH 4rom urine and manure rBST • Recombinant bovine somatotropin • Improves efficiency o Misuse with poorly managed farms ▪ Need to address problems, not a solution • Most researched product to date • No (increase) GH in milk o (increase) IGF-1 ▪ IGF-1 – Insulin like growth factor • Protein hormone not lipid-based • Not-biologically active in humans! o Unlike phytoestrogens (eg soybeans) Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) • Introduction of one or more genes coding for trait o Ex: herbicide tolerance or insect tolerance • OR, obtained via extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alternations o Ex: metabolic pathways improvin
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