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Lecture

Lecture Notes Animal Invasion of Land

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Department
Biological Sciences Program
Course
BSCI 106
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Animal Invasion of Land 11/14/2012 Chordates Are deuterostomes So are Echinoderms Blastopore forms anus Coelom formed by enterocoely (formed differently that protostomes) Echinoderms Larvae are bilaterally symmetric, adults are radial symmetric Unique water vascular system Series of branching, fluid­filled tubes and chambers that form a hydrostatic skeleton Important part of the system is tube feet, which are elongated, fluid­filled structures Endoskeleton – hard supportive structure inside the body 4 Chordate Characteristics Notochord Structural support Supportive but flexible rod that runs the length of the body Dorsal hollow nerve cord Bundle of nerve cells running next to notochord Elsewhere ventral 2  Animal Invasion of Land Pharyngeal slits Feeding, then breathing Muscular tail Propulsion Evolutionary trends Notochord Cranium Elaboration of brain Vertebral column Hinged jaws Two pairs of appendages Chordates and activity level Ancestors with low metabolic rate to chordates with high metabolic rates Parallels among protostomes Vertebrate innovations Great sense organs Eyes, nose, hearing Animal Invasion of Land 3 Protostomes developed advanced sensory organs as well Jointed skeleton Vertebral column Arthropods had joints too (protostomes) Extreme cephalization Some protostomes too Basal vertebrates – chordates with a vertebral column Agnatha No jaws Gnathostomata Jaws Evolve from gill arches More effective feeding Supports higher metabolism Sharks and bony fishes Extremely successful in water Most vertebrates are bony fishes Wide range of habitats No major invasions of land 4  Animal Invasion of Land Tetrapods Amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals Very successful on land Jointed appendages – more effective movement Arthropods too Movement Evolution of limbs provided tetrapods with the ability to move efficiently on land in search of  food Fossil evidence a fin­to­limb transition Reproduction Tetrapods were the first vertebrates that could reproduce on land Three major evolution innovations gave tetrapods this ability Amniotic egg Watertight shell or case enclosing a membrane­bound food supply, water supply, and waste  repository Embryo develops within a protective inner membrane called the
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