Anatomy Notes.docx

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Biological Sciences Program
BSCI 201
Justicia Opoku

AnatomyNotes012820133 Subatomic ParticlesProtons of ProtonsAtomic NumberPositively ChargedNeutronsNeutral ChargedElectronsNegatively ChargedAtomic OrbitFirst ShellCan accommodate up to 2 electronsSecond ShellCan accommodate up to a maximum of 10 electronsThird ShellAtoms Atoms want to share electronsCovalent BondsSharing of electronsIonic Bondstransference of electronsHydrogen Bondsweak bonds created by electronegative bondsLowest LevelChemical Levelbiochemical reactions occurring in the cellsBiochemical reactionsphysiology functions of the organs in the bodyOrgans of the parts of the bodyBasis for biochemical reactionsAtoms with valence outermost shell not complete react to achieve stabilityAchieve Stabilityhave a full valence shell through sharing or transference of electronsCations and AnionsCationsPositively Charged Atoms ones that lose electronsAnionsNegatively Charged Atoms ones that gain electronsAtomic StructureAtomic NucleusProtonsPositively Charged of Protons of ElectronsOverall Charge is Negative because of thisAtomic Number refers to the Number of protons within an atomSince theof protonstheof electrons the atomic number can be used to deduce theof electrons NeutronsNo ChargedOrbitals shells ElectronsNegatively ChargedCovalent bondselectrons are shared between atoms to attain stabilityNonpolar covalent bondelectrons are shared equally between the atoms involvedPolar covalent bondunequal sharing of electronsone atom pulls the shared electron closer to itself and such an atom is referred to as an electronegative atom The other atom is referred to as the electropositive atom Water H2OOxygenelectronegative bondHydrogenElectropositive bondsAchieving StabilityLosing electronsCationspositively charged ionsGaining ElectronsAnionsnegatively charged ions Sharing of electrons between atomsBased on the way atoms achieve stabilitychemical reactions occur inside cellsIonic bonds formed during a chemical reactionInvolves Cations and AnionsCations and Anions are held together by ionic bondsIf electrons are shared betweenamong atoms then they are going to be covalent bonds formed during the chemical reactionNonpolarequal sharingPolarunequal sharingHydrogen bondsIntermolecular bonds that form between an electropositive hydrogen atom already involved in a polar covalent bond and an electronegative atom also already involved in a polar covalent bond Hydrogen bonds bridge several molecules together to form macromolecules such as proteins nucleic acids CompoundsInorganicDo not contain carbon chainsexcept Carbon dioxide and Carbon MonoxideWater Bases Salts AcidsOrganicContain Carbons that are covalently bondedCarbs lipids proteins and nucleic acidsWaterPolar Covalent Molecule
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